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2-2. J£*w 


-J3 THE £h 






Chicago, Illinois, U. S. A. 

BULLETIN ]V r O. i. 

Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley 





The American Field, 





._. Compliments ofs _ 

The Ridgway Ornithological Club. 

(Publications of your Society -will be very 
acceptable hi exchange. 


H. K. CO ALE, Sec'y. 
2340 Wabash Ave., Chicago. III., U. S. A. 


Mississippi Yalley, 




November S, 1SS3. 

; api v 

Vol. XX, Xo. 22, to Vol. XXI, Xo. 3. 


(W. W. COOKE.) 

During the Spring of 1882 a series of observations on the migration of birds 
in the Mississippi Valley was conducted under my supervision. The notes 
collected were published in the Forest and Stream during October and No- 
vember of that year. A more extended series has been successfully con- 
ducted the past Spring, and it is intended in these articles to' give the full 
notes from two points in the Mississippi Valley, namely, St. Louis, Mo., 
the observer here being Mr. O. "Widmann, 4024 Carondelet Avenue; and Jeff- 
erson, "Wis., where I was living the past year. This is done that these notes 
may serve not only as guides to future observers in determining when to 
look for each species, but as showing how necessary it is that observations j 
to be atall satisfactory, should be full, accurate, taken almost daily, and con- 
nected with a careful record of the meteorology of the place of observation 

Full as these notes are, compared with the large majority of " Spring 
notes," a careful study of them will show how much more valuable they 
would have been had they been connected with a third station mid-way be- 
tween, and if in connection with them could be had an exact weather report 
from a place one hundred and fifty or two hundred miles south of St. Louis; 
since, of course, it will be readily granted by all, that it is not the weather of 
the place of arrival which controls the movements of our birds — except in 
rare cases — but rather the atmospheric conditions of the place from which 
the bird starts on its migratory flight. 

To make the record of these two stations as intelligible as possible, it is 
deemed best to describe the character of the country in full, and the con- 
ditions under which the observations were made. 

The ground worked in St. Louis was the south end of the city, along the 
west bank of the Mississippi, which is here about seventy-five to a hundred 
feet high, and the top of which consists of a long series of sink holes or 
shallow pits of a quarter to half an acre in extent, densely overgrown with 
bushes and low trees. The whole southern part of St. Louis is well supplied 
with shrubs and large trees, furnishing convenient stopping places for our 
feathered travelers, but the greater part of the notes were made in the heavy 
timber which skirts the banks of the River des Peres, a small stream which 
marks the city limits on the west and then turning toward the east enters 
the Mississippi a little way south of the city. In these woods the observer 
was alone with Nature and the birds, and, though so near the city, yet was 
as free from interruption and disturbance as if in the big woods of the North- 
west. Opposite St. Louis, on the Illinois side of the river, are extensive low- 
lands overgrown by willows and heavy underbrush. Occasional visits were 
paid to these places, but the notes there taken have always been credited to 
Illinois, and no notes are credited to St. Louis unless they were actually 
made on the Missouri side of tlie river. The trips for observation were 

4 Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 

taken almost daily, and consisted, during the busiest time of the season, of 
a six to eight-mile journey to the woods, starting at 4:30 a. m., and after sever- 
al hours' actual work in the woods, returning at noon, or often late in the af- 
ternoon. To these were added many evening excursions, and a constant 
watch over the movements of such birds as could be found in the heart of the 
city. A good field-glass was constantly in use, and the shotgun appealed 
to if any doubt still remained. Having many years of previous study in the 
same locality to draw upon, this last method was seldom required. It might 
be added that the country is practically destitute of large bodies of pines, and 
of any prairie_land, which may account for the strange absence of some birds 
found in abundance at places not far distant. 

The other station, Jefferson, Wisconsin, is in the south-eastern part of 
that state, midway between Milwaukee and Madison. It is a small town of 
some 2,500 inhabitants, situated on both sides of the Rock River, just 
north of its juncture with the Crawfish River. My house was situated on 
the west bank of the Rock River, seventy feet above its surface and both my 
yard and the yards on each side were plentifully supplied with hardwood 
trees and several varieties of pines. A quarter of a mile's walk westward 
brought me out of town into rather thinly settled country, with patches 
of hardwood timber scattered quite frequently around. A half-mile more 
brought me to the Crawfish River, there flowing southward, but soon bending 
to the East, and joining the Rock River a half-mile south of my place. The 
surface of the country for a mile and a half east and west is flat, constitut- 
ing what is known as the RockRiver Valley. The higher ground farther west 
was not visited, and all the notes are of the movements of the birds in the 

' Most of the notes were made on the banks of the Crawfish, at the south 
end of town, where it was flowing east and west. There, within a radius 
of a third of a mile, could be found hill and valley — on a small scale — heavy 
first-growth timber, second-growth brush, marsh, prairie, and mud flats along 
the river. And no matter which way the wind blew, sheltered spots could 
always be found. North of town, two miles, at a place called Jefferson 
Junction, is a large stretch of tamarac swamps, broken by higher land and 
occasional groves of hardwood. Here bird-life was always found in greater 
abundance than along the Crawfish, and the trips taken there every Satur- 
day furnished much material for the note-book and the collecting-box. The 
work of the season consisted in almost daily visits to the woods from 6 a. 
m. to 8 a. m.. five days in the week, with a more extended trip and longer 
time on Saturdays. Many tramps were also taken after school hours in the 
the afternoon. On many of the cold days the birds were hardly thawed out 
by 8 o'clock, but although science is good for recreation, bread and butter 
must be earned, and the school-room demanded my time from 8:30 a. m. to 
4 p. M. 

In the following notes the plan has been to give first the weather record 
and the general notes from St. Louis, then the same from Jefferson, and 
lastly the combined notes on each species separately. The nomenclature 
used is the latest Smithsonian catalogue. 




"We have had unusually cold and disagreeable weather since the first of 
January. Old Boreas was reigning and kept the ground white, and the tem- 
perature below the pleasure-point for ornithological field work. January 
was cold and windy. February tried to make things better by a two days' 
rain, with the mercury below 30 dgs. Of course it succeeded splendidly in 
making matters worse, for everything from the smallest blade of grass to 
the largest tree was covered with a heavy coat of glittering ice. Consequent- 
ly ornithology had to go on skates or stay at home. This miserable weather 
lasted a whole week, from the 3d to the 10th. On the 14th, however, a warm 
rain and a strong breeze from the south raised the mercury to 62 dgs. 

This first warm breeze brought the first flock of ducks, and since that 
time thousands and thousands have gone north. Between 4 and 5 p. m., on the 
15th, twenty-eight large flocks passed over, and at5 p.m. twenty gulls were in 
sight, passing slowly up in beautiful gyrations ; two small and two very large 
flocks of geese were also seen. Between 7 and 8 p. m., on the 16th, I counted 
over fifty flocks of ducks, aggregating over two thousand individuals, going 
the same way and at the same height. To-night the mercury stands at 25 
dgs., and all is white and hard again. Did these ducks know about this ap- 
roaching great change in the weather and did not mind it, or contrary to the 
theory of some ornithologists, are unable to read probabilities ? 

Since this first south-wind period seems to mark a new era in our bird life 
it will be well to close the chapter of mid-Winter notes now and report what 
I have seen. 

As the weather during the first six weeks of this year did not permit excur- 
sions to new fields, I contented myself with revisiting the ground gone over 
in December, to see what had become of my little friends enumerated in my 
New Year's report. 

Of the three mocking birds mentioned there, two stood the weather bravely 
and are doing well, but the other has not been seen since the freezing rain of 
February 3. Bluebirds have also remained at their old places, and as a 
sign that they did not suffer even during the ice storm, the first mild day two 
males were already courting a female, with as fine a carol as ever was heard 
in Spring. 

Titmice, chicadees, wrens and nuthatches are not disturbed by any kind 
of winter weather, as they can find food where few other birds would think 
of looking for it, while tree holes afford them unexcelled shelter. Never- 
theless they all appreciate southerly winds, and become loquacious in their 
exultations over a big rise in temperature. 

Most, but not ail of the yellow-rumped warblers have vanished. The pur- 

6 Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 

pie finches have become very numerous, large numbers collecting during the 
"glacial period" in every place where the coral berry or Indian turnip grows. 
During those cold days, when everything, even their favorite sycamore buttons, 
was covered with a sheet of ice, they had to put up with this meager food. They 
worked hard all day to appease their hunger, and then were not satisfied. 
Hard, unsatisfactory work it was for them, as they do not eat the whole ber- 
ry, but merely the small seeds within, and even these they have to husk before 
swallowing. After the birds had worked there a few days, the ground was 
coveredwith the husks, skins and pulp. On six acres, overgrown with patches 
of this plant, I found about a hundred purple finches. About ten per cent, 
were in crimson while the rest were in plain brown. When the weather mod- 
erated they left the coral berries. The American goldfinch braved the cold 
of January, but the freezing process of February 3 was too much for them. 
They have almost wholly disappeared ; a walk of nine miles in nine hours re- 
vealing only two birds. "White-throated, white-crowned, song and tree spar- 
rows, and the black snowbird still remained in their winter quarters. Old 
Pipilo has braved the cold well, and his call comes from the same thicket as 
in December, while Mrs. Pipilo is seen not a hundred yards off. The car- 
dinal grosbeak is a hardy fellow, still he likes warm days in Winter better 
than cold ones. When the sun shone brightly on the 12th inst. he was much 
pleased with it and gave vent to a lovely song. 

The crow seems to degenerate ! It cannot stand so much as it used to. I 
found them badly starved and frozen with a terribly empty stomach, and the 
whole bird not more than half its usual weight. Blue jays still know how to 
keep themselves from starving, or else they manage to live on noise-making. 

The downy and hairy wood-peckers remain at their places, and are bound 
to make love the first warm day, no matter how deep the mud is. Mr. Red- 
head tried his best to stay and live on ice-cold acorns, and such like, but when 
I met him on cold days he did not say much, and seemed to suffer remorse 
for not going with his brethren. The flickers remained, and were doing well 
on the 12th inst., but they looked as if they were resolved not to stay with us 
next Winter. 

The following is a list of the new species I have seen since my last report: 

Pine Goldfinch — One bird on January 18. 

Golden-crowned Kinglet — Two pairs on January 6. 

Brown creeper — One bird on January 6. 

Redpoll Linnet — One bird on February 7, and a flock of from thirty to 
thirty-six on the 12th. They were wholly unacquainted with such a thing 
as a shotgun. 

Lapland Longspur — On January 6 there was a flock of thousands on a field 
grown over with sedge, upon the seeds of which they were feeding eagerly. 
It appeared as though they had made a contract with the owner of the field 
to clear it of every seed in the shortest possible time. And how they did 
work ! A pretty hard work it was, too, as they had to husk the minute seeds. 
They were unwilling leave their task undone, and a shot had no other ef- 
fect than to make them go up in a cloud with a noise like thunder, circle a 
few minutes and then come down again near the same spot. They seemed 
too, to do the work systematically ; every few minutes the rear portion of the 

Bird Migration in the Mixnissippi Valley. 7 

army flew over the heads of the others in front, and all moved in the same 

Swamp Sparrow — One bird on January 29, in the same place I found one 
last Winter. 

Purple Grackle — Four birds on January 18, and two on the 29th. 

A few gulls remained here and were seen several times over the Mississip- 
pi at the south part of the city, where the strong current prevented the form- 
ing of ice. 

Following are the notes for the week from February 18 to 24 : 

The weather was cool, partly clear or fair. Northerly winds, and just warm 
enough to keep the ground in an exceedingly muddy condition. It required 
more than ordinary energy to pull through in order to be au fait to the do- 
ings of the progressing season. The equatorial wave which stirred the wa- 
ter-birds to northward advancing on the fourteenth, fifteenth, and morning of 
the sixteenth, and whicli was so abruptly met by its antagonist, the polar 
wave, has wrought some changes in the status of our ornis. 

The most noticeable change is the great increase of bluebirds, or rather, the 
arrival of our bluebirds, if we do not count the few birds wintering with us. 

Ducks were very plentiful in this neighborhood all the week, but no great 
move took place until yesterday forenoon, February 24, when with a light 
rain and strong, warm (62 dgs.) south wind, large flocks were seen to go 
north at some height; also troops of Canada geese. 

This migratory movement was again abruptly stopped, when at noon the 
black western horizon announced the oncoming Norther, which, during the 
afternoon, forced the mercury down to 32 dgs. It is still Winter with us, and 
no changes in our ornis are expected during the next few days. 

Although the weather during this week, February 25 to March 4, was fine 
and seemingly very favorable to the movements of birds, the fact is, that it 
brought no birds at all. We have had clear skies, lively drying winds, with 
a warm sun and four frostless nights. We have had all kinds of winds, but 
have not had that soft moisture-laden south wind which brings us the dark 
clouds from the gulf and the birds from the gulf-bordering countries. 

On our vegetation the clear, warm skies, and frostless nights have had 
great effect since February 28. Within three or four days the yellow of the 
wheat-field has turned into a beautiful green, and many plants, besides the 
grasses, put forth their young leaves. Around the opening blossoms of the 
red maple the bees are swarming, and animal life stirs everywhere, since the 
hot sun of the 28th gave the first start. This last day of February was remark- 
able as an instance of the great effect which a few hours of sunrays have in 
a clear and still air, on an early Spring day. After an extremely clear 
night, the temperature of the air was a little above freezing, but the ground 
was somewhat stiff in the early morning (from radiation, I suppose). Soon, 
however, the sun began to make itself felt, and at 11 a. m. the first frog com- 
menced to croak. At noon a host of his brethren had joined him on all sides, 
and by this time the mercury had risen to 113 dgs. in the sun. 

The mud under the shallow water of the swamps began to move in many 
places, and small larva? appeared with writhing motions. Minute black flies 
danced in the air, and in the dry rubbish ran numbers of spiders to and 
fro. Craw-fishes of small and large sizes crawled up the banks of the creek, 

8 Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 

over the surface of which a variety of water beetles perambulated. In short, 
there was life everywhere, where a few hours before the death of Winter had 
reigned. It seemed to me to be the awakening of Spring, and the scene was per- 
fected when the spirited "honk" of great numbers of departing geese was 
heard overhead. 

This week, March 4 to March 11, was remarkable for its scarcity of birds. 
No birds have arrived, although we have had two south -wind periods, but of 
too short duration. On the fourth the wind shifted rapidly from southwest 
to west, then to northwest, north, northeast, and on the fifth with a light rain 
to southeast, and during the night to southwest, the temperature going up all 
the time from 30 dgs. to 50 dgs., only to sink down again to 30 dgs. during the 
sixth, with the wind from the northwest increasing in strength. 

March 7, clear, cold, temperature from 19 to 31 dgs. Wind northwest, north 
and northeast. 

March 8, clear, bright, but cool wind from the southeast and south. Tem- 
perature from 22 to 44 dgs. 

March 9, after a clear, cool night (34 dgs.), we had a clear day with a good 
breeze from the south, with a maximum temperature of 64 dgs. until the 
wind changed suddenly to northwest at 5 p. m. 

March 10 and 11 we had high winds from the west and northwest, with a 
partly clear sky, and temperature near freezing. 

I had expected many species, which generally arrive during the first ten 
days of March, but after having been through field and woods all day long on 
the eighth and ninth, I was certain that not a single chippy nor field 
sparrow, towhee bunting, American goldfinch, purple grackle, etc., had come. 

Just now, we have even less land birds here than in January and February. 
The bluebirds, robins, meadow larks, and red-winged blackbirds, are the only 
ones which have arrived and spread, while many Winter visitants have left. 
The Lapland longspurs and the redpoll linnets have not been seen again; the 
purple finches have almost all gone. The gold finches have not yet returned. 
The tree sparrows have thinned out, and the enow birds are decidedly less 

The eleventh and twelfth brought no change, the weather was cold and 
windy. The thirteenth was foggy, but two light thunderstorms in the afternoon 
cleared the atmosphere. On the thirteenth I met the first field sparow, a 
male, in song, at the same place where I found the first bird last year, on the 
first of March (twelve days earlier). The fourteenth was expected to bring 
many changes, as it was the day after the first shower, followed by a warm 
night with southwest wind. The day opened brilliantly; a clear sky, soft, 
pure air, 51 dgs., and a light southwest wind. But it was the old story over 
again, wind and mercury went up too high, and a fierce thunderstorm came 
up and down went the mercury again to 31 dgs. on the following day, 
which remained cold with a strong northwest wind. 

The sixteenth was a fine day, cold at first, but gradually growing milder and 
very pleasant, with a brisk southwest wind. Birds were active till 1 p. m. 

March 17. Another fine day, but no additions. 

Sunday (March 18) was fine, the temperature went up rapidly from 51 to 78 
dgs. in the afternoon, until the wind shifted from south to north, almost un- 
noticed at first, as there was no thunderstorm and not a drop of rain, but the 

Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 9 

Norther broke upon us at about 4 p. m., with a velocity of thirty, and at 6 p. 
rn. the mercury was clown to 46 dgs., and at 10 p. m. to 29 dgs. It is the 
greatest change in temperature f within such a short time) that I remember. 

Yesterday (March 19) it was cold (19 to 32 dgs.), with a sharp northwest 
wind, and to day it has been snowing all day with the mercury below 30 dgs. 
I pity the poor martins which were induced to go so far north last Sunday. I 
hope they went back a good distance, or else they must perish, as they could 
find no food, and the nights were too cold for them. 

From March 18 to April 3, there was a perfect standstill in everything. 
The weather being cool, gloomy, with northerly winds, and occasional snow 
and cold rain. Birds did not move, except Fringillidw, which were found 
more numerous on March 30. The snowbirds were found collected in largp 
flocks, and very excited in spite of the cool rain, and in a place where twenty 
wintered, I found an army of two hundred, singing, chasing, etc. Field spar- 
rows, song sparrows, fox sparrows, and towhee buntings, had increased; also 
the blackbirds, meadow-larks, and the small wintering parties of white- 
throats and whitecrowns had swelled to about twice their numbers. April 3 
was the first fine day. The wind had changed during the night from nortli 
to southeast. No new arrivals on this day. Cowbirds were seen, but they 
had probably been here before in company with blackbirds. In the evening 
of this day (April 3) the first martins came back again (had been gone since 
March 18), and a rough-winged swallow. At 9:20 p. m., I heard distinctly 
the voices of wandering robins flying over the city. The sky was clear, mer- 
cury 50 dgs., and a light southeast breeze. 

This night brought us numbers of birds. The first thing in the morning of 
the fourth was the ditty of the chippy. The van had arrived during the 
night. Wherever I went on the fourth there were robins and flickers, and 
the number of blackbirds was very great (redwings and grackles). Among the 
arrivals were also many golden-crowned kinglets and creepers. Also a troop 
of cranes passed by at 6 p. m. The next night brought us still more birds, 
and the fifth of April was a glorious day. 

The day had opened with a light thunder-storm, after a calm, warm night 
(mercury at 60 dgs.). The day was sultry, with threatening clouds and light 
variable winds, just the weather for birds and bird song. The night had 
brought the first thrashers, the Bewick's wren, and the bulk of rubies, chip- 
pies, towhees, more robins and flickers, etc. 

The next three days were cooler, but the afternoon of the eighth was warm 
and the first swifts and cormorants came in advance of the new wave. 

The night of April 8 was warm, with a light south wind, clear to fair. It 
took off the last few fox and tree sparrows, many snowbirds and song spar- 
rows, robins and flickers, purple fincdes, etc. It brought us clouds of yellow- 
rumps, the grand army of Peabodys, more swamp sparrows, white crowns, 
chippies, hermits, water-thrushes, gnat-catchers, and flocks of thrashers. We 
have had very warm weather since that. The thirteenth and fourteenth were 
hot with high southerly winds, but few arrivals were met with ; the van of a 
few species, such as the white-eye, the eave and barn swallow, yellow- 
redpoll, has been seen, and others have increased, especially the swifts and 
gnat-catchers, the snipes and yellow-rumps, and perhaps a few others. A few 
have disappeared, namely, the snowbirds, ruby-crowned kinglets, creepers, 

10 Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 

rusty blackbirds, etc. The most conspicuous birds of the present time are 
the yellow-rumps, Peabodys, thrashers, towhees, chippies, cow-birds, grackles, 
redwings, and meadow-larks. Crows, robins, phoebes, blue birds, shrikes, 
field-sparrows, and Carolina wrens have nests or are building; also redbirds 
and king-fishers. Even chippies and towhees have commenced. 

April 17. — Sunday was a cool day, with a strong west wind, but clear, and 
the wind subsiding in the evening. The night was clear and cool, and Mon- 
day opened with a light southwest wind, clear, with mercury at 48 dgs. It 
was a fine, perfect day, not too warm, but it brought only two new species — 
the house-wren and the golden-crowned thrush. 

Last night was a beautiful night, almost perfectly calm, at least in the 
early morning, smoke going straight up, and not a cloud visible. It was so 
calm and clear that in deep places a light hoar frost was found, although my 
thermometer was not below 48 dgs. 

It was a birds' night, and I' found quite a number of old friends in the 
woods this morning; no migrants, but Summers sojourners, at their breeding 
places, on the same trees as last year; all old males in high plumage and in 
fine song. 

April 18. — Fair weather continued ; night was warm, hazy, with light 
south wind. To-day there is a brisk southwest wind, and threatening indi- 

April 19. — After a very dark night, and a light rain from 5 to 7 a. m., after 
which it was cloudy, the afternoon was clear and fine, with cool northwest 

April 20. — A clear, cool night, and most beautiful day. Clear and cool, 
with a brisk southwest wind (had shifted during night). No change in ornis. 
Much the same birds as on the 18th and 19th, with additional individuals of 
the same species. 

April. — The twenty-first opened cloudy, with strong cool (55 dgs.) north- 
< ast wind, turning at noon to southeast with a light rain; the afternoon 
being warm (70 dgs.) and in the evening, as well as twice during the night 
there were thunder storms, with heavy rains, but wind continues in the south- 
east, with prospect of more rain to-day. 

Birds are moving, and the next few days -will reveal a number of new 
species, and a large increase of such as are now represented by the advance 
guard only. 

April 29. — A cold period, preceded by a series of thunder storms set in dur- 
ing the twenty-third, and put a check to the movements of birds. In fact, 
the cold night of the twenty-third chilled all our birds so much that the 
bright sun of the twenty-fourth could not induce them to their usual soqg, 
and everything seemed deserted. The thrasher and chippies, so noisy befqre, 
had nothing to say, and even the ubiquitous blackbirds were non est. 

The next day was better, but still cool in the morning, and it took several 
hours to warm the birds up enough to give a song from time to time. During 
the twenty-sixth the wind changed slowly from north to south, but the next 
morning found it back again to north. It is cloudy, and there is not- the 
change in our ornis that I expected. 

Yesterday the wind was southwest to northwest, with dark clouds, and 
falling temperature. To-day is clear and bright, but cold, with strong north 

Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley 11 

wind. Taken altogether this week, usually one of the best of the season, was 
very unproductive, and it required considerable search to discover a few indi- 
viduals of species not before seen. It must be understood that such new 
arrivals are not met with the very first day after their arrival ; they may be 
here for a number of days before they are discovered. The record of simple first 
dates without further observation of the species is therefore of little or no 
value for the study of migration. 

The correctness of this opinion is confirmed by the experience of this 
last week. I met, for instance, the first indigo on the 21st, but I have not 
seen any more since that day. I have met the first Savannah sparrow and 
the first Lincoln's finch on the twenty-third, but none since, in spite of the 
most careful lookout, and frequent visiting of nesting stations of former 
.years. I heard the song of the first Bell's vireo on the twenty-fifth, but none 
since, although I passed daily many of their old stands. I saw and heard the 
red-eyed vireo on the twenty-fifth, but only once again, on the twenty-sev- 
enth. The first Tennessee warbler was met with on the twenty-fifth, but 
only once again, on the twenty-seventh. In short, it requires a good deal 
more than first dates to get an insight into the movements of our birds. 
During the week sixteen new species have been seen, but all of these six- 
teen new arrivals did not change our amis in the least ; it required an orni- 
thologist to discover them. But the real change in our omis comes from the 
increase and prominence of a few species, the van of which came during the 
preceding week (18th — 22d), and the bulk between the twenty-fifth and twenty 
ninth. The rose-breasted grosbeak and the Baltimore oriole are the con- 
spicuous and noisy birds of to-day. Females have arrived, and old males are 
now back in full numbers. 

May 1. — Day after day I go out with the expectation of meeting friends 
whose arrival has long been due, according to my records of former years. 
But in vain. Two more days have gone by, and no north bound bird, no 
new species has arrived. The host of transient warblers, and some of our 
Summer sojourners have not yet made their appearance, and are getting 
more or less behind their dates of other years. 

The weather has been exceedingly fine for all purposes of homo sapiens 
at least, especially for homo sapiens v. rusticus, pleasant, clear mornings, 
clouding over toward noon, thus keeping us from getting overheated. Dry 
weather and cool nights. But just this dry weather and these cool nights, I 
think, are the cause of the retardation in the arrival of our insect-loving trav- 
elers ; and, indeed, it is astonishing how free the air is from all kinds of in 
sects. Though it is greatly beneficial to the comfort of man, yet not swelling 
the reports of an observing ornithologist. Vegetation is progressing slowly 
but steadily, and our beautiful warblers will find abundant shelter in the 
thickly-foliagec 1 maples, elms, poplars, lindens, etc., as well as the orchard 
trees. Even oaks and hickories have put forth half- grown leaves, and are 
covered with catkins. Buckeyes and paw paws are in fine bloom. 

We have had no hot period since the middle of April, but I think there 
is one approaching now. Easterly winds have. blown for several days, and if 
the wind should turn to the South now, we should have plenty of work. 
Swamp sparrows, Peabody birds, yellow rumps and yellow redpolls are still 
remaining with us, and are all assuming the high-colored state. When the' 

12 Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 

go, mark you, there will be few among them without their wedding clothes. 
The only change during the last few days is the great increase of the gold- 
finch and the black-throated bunting. 

May 2. — A full bird-wave reached us last night. The night was clear 
and warm (66 dgs. to 55 dgs.), and the wind south. It brought us thousands 
of birds, and the woods are just full of them. It is impossible to observe all 
birds around me, especially since the capture of my first Cape May warbler 
(tigrina) took a part of my best time. 

May 3. — Wind continued south until night, when a cool north wind set in ; 
maximum temperature, f)0 dgs. Bird life at its height. Number of species 
and individuals, at or very near highest of the year. All the Summer so- 
journers are here (with few exceptions), and most of them in full numbers. 

May 4. — Weather cool, rainy, dark, with north wind. Birds and observei 
take a rest. 

May 5. — The most beautiful day of the year, genial temperature with north 
west wind. I found sixty different species of birds on ten acres of ground. 
May 10. — When I made my last report (May 5) I had no idea that the Spring 
migration would so soon be over, but, alas ! All seem now to be gone. 

The high south wind of the last three days (seventh, eighth and ninth), has 
carried away many unwritten pages of future reports. 

The birds passed us without stopping. Had this cold wave which we enjoy 
to-day struck three days ago, we might have had a fine time. Dry, hot, high, 
south wind is always bad for the observer. Looking for birds in such 
weather is hard, unsatisfactory work. That rustle of the shaking leaves, rus- 
tles all enthusiasm out of my heart, and I go home discouraged. To find only 
one new species from May 6 to May 10' is enough to discourage anyone. 

This one species was the inevitable yellow warbler, and I met with one 
male on the ninth, and again on the tenth. 

In vain did I look for the tawny thrush, orange-crowned, mourning and 
Connecticut warblers, clay-colored sparrow, olive-sided and yellow-bellied 

As a whole this season was bad for this particular part of the country. We 
have had almost no bird-waves because the polar wave never struck at the 
right time. The Savannah and Lincoln's sparrows, the pine-creeping and 
the bay-breasted warblers and the least fly-catcher have stopped but a moment, 
to be off next day. Other species seem to take other routes, being seldom 
or never seen here, especially the black-throated blue, Blackburnian, black- 
throated green and hemlock warblers, and the clay-colored sparrow. 

Thanks to the unfavorable weather of the last four days even some of my 
Summer sojourners are still without dates, namely, cuckoos, hummers, and 
nighthawks. Others which are local have to be looked after, such as the prai 
rie and worm-eating warblers, the marsh wrens, whip-poor-wills, etc. 

May 19. — Strange, indeed ! I thought migration was over on the 10th. How 
great was my astonishment on the 14th to find a good old-fashioned bird-wave. 
The woods were full of transients, and this is how it came. May 11. — Cold 
with northwest wind. May 12. — Cold, with northwest wind. May 13. — Rain 
with southeast wind and rising temperature, and a thunderstorm at mid- 
night! Next morning, the 14th, the wind was shifting to west and northwest. 

Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 13 

while on the 15th it continued northwest until the evening of the six- 
teenth, with cool nights. 

The theory is that the transients were overtaken by the rainstorm of Sun- 
day (13th) night, and kept back by the cool nights following. Since the 17th 
we have had warmer weather with southerly winds, and the transients 
have thinned out decidedly. The best days were the fourteenth, fifteenth 
and sixteenth. There is no doubt but some birds were suddenly stopped. 
Water thrushes, Lincoln's finches, yellow-bellied fly-catchers, etc., were found 
in a dry pasture in the city, and the short-billed marsh wren by the way- 

May 21. — Yesterday was one of those hot days with southwind, and little 
could be done. Last night copious rains, to-day a sultry, threatening south- 
west wind. Look out for a grand move. 

May 29. — Cool weather continues up to this day, but two warm nights, the 
23d and 24th, have taken off all transients. Migration for this Spring is at an 




January 21. — Coldest day of Winter; mercury 32 dgs. below zero. 

January 26. — Hail and rain in small quantities with south wind. From 
then on there was medium Winter weather until February 13, it began to 
feel SpringJike. The next day was also pleasant ; mercury at 27 dgs. with 
south wind. 

February 14. — Commenced to thaw. South wind. 

February 15. — Warm. At night heavy rain with thunder and lightning. 

February 16. — Rained all day. Strong south wind. 

February 22. — Slight snow, wind north, mercury at 16 dgs. Clear. 

February 23 to 28. — Constantly growing warmer, with mostly south, but not 
strong winds. 

March 1. — Soutli wind at 6 a. m., mercury was 27 dgs. ; at 9 a. m. 36 dgs. ; at 
1 p. m. 55 dgs. Snow three-fifths gone. 

March 6. — Snow all gone, 

March 9 to 12. — Severe northwest wind, everything frozen solid. 

March 13 and 1-4. — Very warm with west wind, starting the waterbirds 
northward. Next day cold, with hard northwest wind. Winter once more 
and not a bird to be seen. 

March 16 and 17. — Warm southwest wind. 

March 18. — Cold, almost to zero. No migration whatever took place from 
this date until the 23d. 

March 23. — Night of the twenty-third clear, barely 32 dgs. with south wind. 
Just the night for birds, and the morning showed quite large arrivals of 
snowbirds, tree sparrows robins, blackbirds and bluebirds. But Spring was 
not yet to come and from the 25th to evening of the 31st, the nights were cold 
and freezing, with northeast to northwest winds, and snow on two days. No 
increase in any birds. 

The first of April, it began to change. 

April 2 — Was a bright, beautiful Spring day, with the night before clear 
and still, but so cold, that no migration was perceptible. The first frogs ap- 
peared, and mud-turtles were very numerous along the river bank. 

April 3 — During this day preparatory moves were made by ducks and 
geese, and the night of the 3rd ushered in the first real wave of Spring mi- 
gration. Queer weather for migration. 

April 3. — This day was a mixture of snow and rain, and the night was 
very damp and cloudy with a warm south wind, and mercury at 40 dgs. Yet 
this dark, cloudy night brought the bulk of the snowbirds and tree sparrows, 

Bird Mir/ration in the Mississippi Valley. 15 

many song sparrows, the first fox sparrow, ruby-crowned kinglets, Winter 
wrens, kingfishers, yellow-bellied woodpeckers, white-bellied swallows, phoe- 
bes, brown creepers and hermit thrushes, besides swelling the numbers of 
all kinds that were here. 

April 5. — A twelve hours rain to-day. 

April 6.— This day brings four inches of snow. It seemed strange while 
walking through it the next day to find two full sets of crows' eggs. 

April 8. — Changeable. 

April 9. — Not Spring but Summer, with the mercury at 7G dgs. in the shade 
and a strong south wind with not a cloud to be seen. 

April 10. — Another Summer day, with a slight admixture of New England 
weather, raining in the afternoon with the mercury at CO deg., then the wind 
slowly changed from south to west, and northwest, and during the night it 
froze. No wonder the birds seemed discouraged this Spring. 

April 12. — Bright, warm and windy, and in the afternoon cloudy. Mercury 
at 48 dgs. at 8 a. m. The first day this Spring that the air has been full of 
song. The great change was produced principally by the bursting forth in 
full song of the tree sparrows, which have been gradually increasing in mel- 
ody since March 23. To-day they and the song sparrows were on every bush 
and tree, each one striving to outdo the others. 

April 13.— Warm, with a strong south wind and bright sky. Night of 
the 13th was warm and clear. It was our first Summer night. 

April 14. — At 6 a. m. the temperature was 65 dgs., with a strong southwest 
wind. At 9 a. m. the temperature was 76 dgs. and at noon a hard rain set in, 
and during the night of the 14th it cleared off cold. 

April 14. — The first thing that struck me on reaching the woods this morn- 
ing was the stillness; so different from two days before. Not one-tenth of 
the song sparrows were left and only four tree sparrows were seen, the scat- 
tered black birds were gone, and even the robins were much less numerous. 
It seemed as if all migrants, which had halted for a few days, had taken the 
favorable opportunity of the south wind and left for the north. 

April 15.— Mercury at 42 dgs. Cold and chilly all day, with a strong west 
wind, bringing all the Tvhite-bellied swallows, which for a week had been 
circling over the city, into one flock,- which kept all day over one place on the 
river near the principal bridge, where they were somewhat sheltered from the 
chill wind by high hills and buildings. April 16-April 24. — The next eight 
days were a succession of cold chilly nights, twice freezing ; with rather clear, 
but not warm days. Very little migration took place, and the general char- 
acter of the birds here was unchanged. Only one new arrival was noted, the 
chewink, and no departure at all. 

April 24-April 28. — These days were a little better. The nights were still 
cold — the first two nights freezing — but the days were warmer, and bird life 
was more abundant and much more active. Almost every day showed new 
species, though none of the really Summer birds had arrived, and the linger- 
ing snowbirds, ruby-crowns and purple finches, gave a Winter aspect to 
our avifauna. The first wildflower — the hepatica— opened ou the twentv- 
fourth, and the next day the arst leaves of the earliest laurels began to 

April 29 — May 3. — The next week was a transition period from Spring to 

16 Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 

Summer. The 29th and 30th were cloudy, cold with nights a little above 
freezing, with north and northeast winds ; but the days were quite warm. 
Mayday showed a few flowers, the caltha, wood anemone, claytonia, sangui- 
naria, rue-anemone and one crucifer in blossom ; while only a few shrubs, as 
the currants, raspberries, box elders, etc., had put forth leaves, and they were 
not more than one-tenth grown. A walk in the evening showed no new spe- 
cies, and scarcely any change in the birds from what they were a week 
before. The night of the 1st it rained all night incessantly, but not hard, 
the wind changing after 10 p. m., from south to north. In the morning we 
had a few hours of sunlight, and again steady rain from the afternoon of the 
2d until 9 a. m. of the 3d. Yetthese two dark, stormy nights brought us our first 
Summer birds, and marked a distinct and decided change from Spring to 
Summer. They brought us the house wren and the chippy, large flocks of 
white-throated sparrows and blackbirds, and, at last, the warblers. Six spe- 
cies were identified before a pelting rain drove me out of the woods. 

May 4. — The night of the 3d was cold and foggy, mercury at 40 dgs., with 
north wind, and that of the 4th was not much better. But little movement 
took place, and the new birds noted — small billed water thrush, blue-yellow 
backed warbler, warbling vireo, etc., were in small numbers and inconspic- 

May 5. — The afternoon was enlivened by the song of the first bobolink. A 
warm evening, and perfectly clear, still night, with mercury at 46 dgs. 

May 6. — I expected to find that great movements had been taking place, 
and, indeed, considerable change was apparent, but a rain set in fifteen 
minutes after I left home at 6 a. m. and continued until just before I returned 
at 8:30 a. m. I found the first kingbird of the season awaiting me, around 
the corner was the first rosebreasted grosbeak, as full of song as he could 
hold, and at last a ^atbird, nearly three weeks behind his time. White 
throats had noted the favorable night and left. I found only one-tenth of 
yesterday's numbers. In the evening there was a strong south wind, with 
much thunder and lightning, and a little rain ; very dark. Cleared off some 
time in the night. 

May 7. — At 4 a. m. it was clear, with southwest wind and mercury at 58 dgs. 
Alternately cloudy and clear all day with wind suddenly changing to north 
at 10 a. m. Maximum temperature 70 dgs. Not much movement of any 
species, but some changes in nearly all. The chippy, chimney swifts, grass 
finches, phaibes, and martins have increased somewhat, and are in about full 
Summer numbers. The greatest change to-day is produced by the arrival 
of numbers of Baltimore orioles, rosebreasted grosbeaks, and red-headed 
woodpeckers, all in full voice, and the scream of the latter trying vainly 
to drown the beautiful melodies of the other two. 

May 8-May 9. — The next two days brought little, but rain with variable 
winds from north to south. The afternoon and evening of the 9th the rain 
fell in torrents, flooding the whole country. Much of my best ground is 
changed to marsh. 

May 10. — The rain ceased at 3 a. m., and a walk in the woods from 5 :30 to 
8:30 a. m. revealed considerable movement among the birds. The most 
noticeable changes were the arrival of the goldfinches in flocks, and the de- 
ckled increase in the bobolinks. The females of the grosbeaks, towhees 

Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 17 

and Baltimore orioles, had also arrived. Also quite a small army of warblers 
had come the rain, bringing the first redstart, magnolia, hemlock, black 
poll and Nashville warblers; and at the same time the first yellow-throated 
and blue-headed vireos were seen, also the first tanager. A great increase had 
taken place in the kingbfrds, chimney swifts, and least fly-catchers. Strange 
that so much change should have taken place in the face of a north wind 
and a very heavy rain storm ! 

May 11. — Night before was clear for the first time in more than two weeks ; 
wind northwest, and moderately strong; hard frost, and froze in lowlands. I 
was in the woods from 6 a. m. to 8 a. m. Apparently no change whatever ; 
birds scarce owing to cold, and I could not stay out until it was warmer. 
Only noticeable thing seen was seventeen blue jays in one flock passing leis- 
urely north through the tree tops. 

May 12. — Night before clear, with strong north wind, mercury 40 dgs. 
The morning was beautiful, but chilly, was out all day and found bird life 
quite abundant, but still far from full Summer numbers. 

May 13. — Night before cloudy, with- north wind and mercury at 40 dgs. 
The day was half cloudy until 2 p. m. when it began to rain, and continued 
almost steadily until early the next morning. North wind and mercury 
at 43 dgs. 

May 14. — This morning it cleared off at 5 :15, mercury at 40 dgs., with a 
north wind still. No change of birds was apparent. The evening turned 
out to be bright moonlight, with mercury at 48 dgs., and a south wind. 

May 16. — This day was clear with maximum temperature of 71 dgs. No 
new arrivals were noted, and no increase perceptible in any, but decrease or 
total absence of some told that the night's favorable opportunity had been 
utilized. A decided decrease was apparent in all Hylocichlae. 

May 17. — Night before was moonlight, warm and clear with south wind. 
Just such a night as birds most like for migrating. Yet, although some 
movement was apparent, it was not great. 

May 18. — Night before cloudy with south wind, and from daybreak the 
mercury rose rapidly. The day was hot, sultry and cloudy, with a strong south 
wind from 9 a. m. to 2 -.30 p. m. The thermometer marked 82 dgs. in spite of 
the clouds. At 3 p. m., a regular cyclone of the Iowa kind advanced straight 
toward us until it reached the brow of the hill a mile and a half west, when it 
split and the two parts passed north and south of us, and destroyed two 
neighboring towns. Evening and night warm and rainy, the strong south 
wind still continuing. I was not in the woods at all on the 18th, but either 
on the night of the 17th or 18th there must have been much migration, as I 
found great changes when reaching the woods on the 19th. 

May 19. — This day can be set down as the height of the season for birds 
at this place, but yet so many of the transients had already passed northward 
that, although the woods were full to overflowing with song, the most of the 
melody came from a few birds. The redstarts furnished a large part of the 
music, and the rest of the choir was composed principally of vireos and fly- 
catchers. With this day terminated most of the work in migration for this 
Spring. It was the grand swell of the migratory wave just before its final 
subsidence. The arrival of only six birds remained to be chronicled, and the 

18 Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 

next few days were so cold, cloudy and disagreeable that the departure of the 
transients still remaining was slow and hardly noticeable. 

May 20-May 23. — These days were cloudy and rainy with wind shifting from 
west to north and northeast, and the mercury hanging around 40 dgs., with a 
fall, twice, to 32 dgs. 

May 24. — After a hard rain the night before, we again had Spring weather 
and a bright, clear day. It showed the last arrival of the season of the Sum- 
mer sojourners, the cuckoos, which usually bring up very near the end of 
the list; and it also showed the tawny and olive-backed thrushes as 
numerous as any time this Spring. 

But little remains to be chronicled of this Spring's migration. The last 
transient visitors, the Connecticut and the Canadian fly-catching warblers, 
put in their appearance on the 26th ; after a four days' visit, left us on the 
29th, taking with them nearly all the remaining transients; and when the 
last olive-back departed on the last day of May, migration was ended. 





Wood Thrush (Hylocicltla mustelina). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. The 
first seen was on April 19, when two were found at old stands singing a few 
strains, when it began to rain. April 22, two were in full song. April 29 
they were still quiet and scarce. May 1. They are exercising every morn- 
ing now, and by the 16th had become conspicuous and diligent songsters. — 
Jefferson — Summer sojourner. First one was seen on May 10, and by the 
12th there had been a decided increase and many were heard and six or eight 
seen; the bulk of the birds have not yet arrived. May 17. This day marked 
the height of the migration, and by the 21st they had settled down to Summer 

Wilson's Thrush (H.fuscescens). St. Louis — Transient. First seen on May 
14, and were numerous on the 15th, 16th and 17th. On the 21st several were 
seen and they were the last. — Jefferson — Transient. First seen on May 7. 
May 12 the bulk of the birds were with us, but they were gone a very few 
days later, and only one was seen on the 21st, which I supposed was the last, 
but on the 24th they were as numerous as at any time this Spring. The last 
one seen was on May 30. 

Gray-cheeked Thrush (II. alicice). St. Louis — Transient. Last seen on May 
22. Jefferson — transient. Only identified on May 24. 

OliveJoacked Thrush (H. ustulata swainsoni). St. Louis — Transient. First 
one seen on April 26 and no more until May 2 when the bulk arrived. On 
the 5th was the height of the migration. Were still present on the 10th, and 
from the 14th to 18th quite numerous. Last one seen on May 24. Jefferson 
— Transient. Have lost my record of the first one, but a second was seen on 
May 3. On the 12th I met with the tawny thrush quite often ; about the 
height of the migration. During the next week the bulk departed, and on 
the 19th only three were seen. On the 24th they were as numerous as at any 
time this Spring. Last seen on May 31. 

Hermit Thrush (H. unalasca pallasi). St. Louis — Transient. First seen on 
April 9, and from the 10th to the 12th was the height of the migration. Last 
seen on April 13. Jefferson — Transient. First one seen on April 4 ; another 
seen on the 5th, which I shot. One or more seen nearly every day until the 
20th, when they began to be more common. On May 6 the bulk departed 
and the last one was seen on May 10. 

Robin (Merula migratoria). St. Louis. — Summer sojourner. First seen on 
February 22 when there were about thirty in a flock in a wood. On March 
4, several small flocks were seen at different places, but the bulk had not yet 

20 Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 

come. On the 11th they were still scarce and first song was heard on the 
8th. March 14, numbers were feeding on soft ground in company with 
blackbirds and flickers, and on the 16th were found on the prairie at their 
old stands and in two small flocks, but not numerous and noisy. April 3, at 
9 :20 p. m. the voices of wandering robins were distinctly heard flying over 
the city. Wherever I went on the 4th I found robins. Height of the tran- 
sient visitation April 4 to 8. Jefferson. — Summer sojourner. First bird seen 
on Mar"ch 1, and no more until the 14th, and then only two. On the 17th I saw 
the first flock, about thirteen. No migration of any kind from then until 
March 23, after which they very slowly increased. The only large flock seen 
this Spring was on April 6. The height of song and of numbers was on April 
12, when single ones and pairs were seen everywhere : but two days later all 
the transients had apparently left. The first egg was found on April 27. 

Mocking bird (31. polyglottus). St. Louis. — Summer resident. On New 
, Fear's day three were seen. April 16 1 heard the first song, and on the 17th 
two more songsters. May 1. Ranks are filling up slowly as usual. — Jeffer- 
son. Does not occur here except as a Straggler. 

Catbird (Q. carolinensis). St. Louis. — Summer sojourner. First one seen 
on April 18, which was in high plumage, but silent. April 22. A slight in- 
crease and singing a little. April 29. Still comparatively quiet and scarce. 
May 1. Still scarce. A morning's walk reveals less than half a dozen. May 
2. The bulk of the birds arrived to-day and many migrating flocks and many 
more came during the following night. May 14. Found the first set of eggs, 
and on the 16th many diligent and conspicuous songsters. Jefferson. — Sum- 
mer sojourner. May 6 first saw three, nearly three weeks behind time. On 
the 7th they had increased greatly ; probably twenty per cent, are here, and 
they are very noisy. May 10. The bulk of the birds. May 12 to 19. Height 
of the migration. 

Brown Thrush (H. rufus). St. Louis. — Summer sojourner. First seen on 
April 5. Bulk on the 9th and the height of the migration from 9th to 16th. 
Jefferson. — Summer sojourner. First seen on April 25. For some reason 
this immediate vicinity is disliked and shunned by this species. After the 
first one, which was seen again the next day, no more were seen until May 
3 and 4, one on each day ; and on the 6th five more were seen. This last 
date might be called the height of the migration for this place, as at no other 
time have I seen more than three a day and two-thirds of the time none at all, 
though in the woods all day long. 

Bluebird (S. sialis). St. Louis. — Summer resident. In January these were 
first seen but only single birds, no flocks. February 13. Birds are mating, 
and up to the 24th were a great many arrivals ; about half the birds seem 
to be back, being in pairs or pairing. March 4. The bluebirds were the 
chief birds of the past week. They were seen and heard everywhere ; the 
males doing most of the warbling; the females most of the fighting. I 
caught two females in my hands, which had come down to the ground in 
combat. Jefferson. — Summer sojourner. On March 11 four were seen for 
the first time, slowly increased from that date on. Some were paired wne 
they arrived, the rest mated as soon as they came. March 17. They began 
to be quite common, but the cold put a stop to all migration until the 23d, 
after which they have been quite numerous. April 9. They are now to be 

Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 21 

seen and heard everywhere in pairs, there being no flocks at all. I have not 
seen more than four birds together any time during this Spring. 

Blue-gray Gnat-catcher (P. aerulea). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. First 
seen on April 9. Bulk came on the 14th. April 17. — Pairs continually seen 
in the woods, and singing. Jefferson. — Does not occur. 

Ruby-crowned Kinglet. (R. calendula) St. Louis. — Transient. First seen 
on April 4. Height of the migration from the 4th to 12th. April 17 only two 
seen. April 27. — Still present. May 1. — One pair seen, and on the 3d" the last 
bird. Jefferson. — Transient. On April 11 first saw a flock of seven, of 
which three were singing, and exactly imitating the song of the Winter wren. 
April 13. — Height of the migration, and on the 14th or 15th the bulk departed. 
On April 28 I visited a tamarac swamp, three miles from here, where I 
found the ruby-crowns in their glory. The swamp was full of them. I 
counted twenty-three in front of me at one time, and the rest of the swamp 
seemed to be just as full of them. As this was only one of many such swamps 
within a mile, their united number must have been very great. All were in 
song, and very active. April 26 the first female was seen, and from then on 
the number without the red crests increased very rapidly, until on May 3, 
though still quite numerous, not more than ten per cent, had a red crown, 
and the next day, out of eighteen or twenty, not one had an ornamental top- 
knot. At 11 p. m. on May 5, one came to my window and tried to get in, act- 
ing as if attracted by the light, or frightened by the thunder and lightning of 
the approaching storm. May 7. — Nearly all gone ; saw only seven. May 12. 
— Aboivt one-fourth as many in tamaracs as on the 5th. May 21. — Last regu- 
lar visitor seen, though a straggler was seen on the 28th. 

Golden-crowned Kinglet (R. satrapa) St. Louis. — Winter visitant and tran- 
sient. January 6. — Two pairswere seen in different places, and no more were 
seen until March 1, when two pairs were found in the same places. April 4. 
— First of transients, and on the 10th the last. Jefferson. — Transient. April 
4. — Five first seen in one piece of woods. On the 9th they were more numer- 
ous, and on the 10th migration was at its height, lo every mile I traveled 
there averaged eight birds. On April 12 the bulk of the birds departed, and 
from the 14th to the 26th I occasionally saw one or two at a time. The last 
was seen on April 26. 

Tufted Titmouse (L. bieolor) St. Louis — Resident. January 1 they were 
too numerous to count, generally in family groups of six or eight birds, and 
conspicuous in every grove. It is a true resident. Jefferson. — Does not occur 

Black-capped Chickadee {P. atricapillus). Resident at both St. Louis and 

White-bellied Nuthatch (8. carolinensis). Resident at both St. Louis and 

Red-bellied Nuthatch (8. canadensis). Not noticed at either St. Louis or 

Brown Creeper (C. familiaris rufa). St. Louis — Transient, and occasional 
Winter visitant. On January 6 one bird was seen, and no more until 
February 19, when a second was seen in a cemetery, and also on March 1 
and 16. On April 4 the bulk of the birds were seen, and from the fifth to 
the ninth was the height of the migration. The last one was seen on April 9. 

22 Bird, Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 

Jefferson— Transient. On April 4 the first two were seen. The bulk of the 
birds departed about April 11. The last one was seen April 15. 

Carolina Wren (T. ludovicianus). St. Louis. — A true resident. On sunny 
days its call is often heard ringing through the woods. April 15 they had 
nests or were building. Jefferson.— Does not occur. 

Bewick's Wren (T. bewicki). St. Louis. — Summer sojourner. First seen on 
April 5, and on the 17th they were in full numbers and very noisy. Jeffer- 
son. — Not seen. 

House Wren (J 7 . a>don). St. Louis. — Summer sojourner. I saw several for 
the first time on April 17 and again on the next day. April 22 showed an in 
crease, and by the 29th they were industrious songsters and mating. Jeffer- 
son. — Summer sojourner. I first saw one on May 2, when it was singing with 
spirit and perseverance. It was joined two days later by another, and on the 
6th two more came, and on the 7th still more, but yet very few. On the 10th 
they were still increasing slowly, and by the 12th no more came, and the Sum- 
mer number was here. Not more than ten pairs about town. 

Winter Wren (A. troglodytes hyemalis). St. Louis. — Transient. Once seen 
on April 3. Jefferson. — Transient. First one seen in a marshy wood on April 
4, and on the 28th three more were seen. May 12. — One was seen in the tam- 
arac, and was probably very near the last. 

Long-billed Marsh Wren (T. palustris). St. Louis. — Not seen. Jefferson. — 
Summer sojourner. First seen on May 21, but it may have come sooner, as 
it occurs only locally and must be sought. 

Short-billed Marsh Wren (G. stellaris). St. Louis. — First one seen on May 
16. Jefferson. — Undoubtedly occurs like the preceding, but was not seen. 

Black and White Creeper (M. varia). St. Louis. — Summer sojourner. First 
one seen in migration on April 29. May 3. — Singing at their old stands. 
Jefferson. — Summer sojourner. May 3. — I first saw five at as many different 
places, but not singing. On the 5th single ones would be seen every few 
minutes, and on the 6th six or eight were seen. May 12. — Migration was at its 
height, and no apparent change after this. 

Prothonotary Warbler (P. citrea). St. Louis. — Summer sojourner. On April 
20 I first found six at old stands and in song, and on May 2 they were mat- 
ing. Jefferson. — Not seen; probably does not occur. 
Worm-eating Warbler (H. vermivorus). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. 
Breeding-place not visited until May 22, when a nest with incubated eggs 
was found by Mr. H. K. Coale, and female shot. Jefferson — Does not occur. 
Blue-winged Yellow Warbler (H. pinus). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. 
First saw few in song on April 17. May 3, height of migration. — Jefferson — 
Probably seen twice, but not certainly identified. 

Golden-winged Warbler (H. chrysoptera). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. 
On May 2 I first saw a fine male in song, and on the 14th and 15th four birds, 
both male and female. Jefferson — Probably occurs, but not seen. 

Nashville Warbler (II. r'ujicapilla). St. Louis — Transient. May 2. — First 
saw a fine male in song, and on the 3d six were seen, and these were the 
last. — Jefferson — Transient. On May 10, first saw two males and saw only 
five up to May 12. No more seen until on May 22, a party of six or eight. 
May 26. — Last one seen. 

Orange-crowned Warbler (H. celata). Undoubtedly a few pass through 

Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 23 

each place in the Spring, but none were seen at either St. Louis or Jefferson. 

Tennessee "Warbler (H. peregrina). St. Louis — Transient. First seen on 
April 25, and again on the 27th, a single individual in song. On May 2 num- 
bers were seen and heard, and on the 3d was the height, of the migration, 
which continued up to the 10th, and they were still numerous up to May 
18. Last one was seen on May 24. Jefferson — Transient. First one seen 
May 17. May 19. — No males seen yet this year ; females three times. May 
22. — First saw six or eight single males, and they were the last seen. 

Blue Yellow-backed Warbler. (P. americana). St. Louis — Summer so- 
journer. On April 17 first saw several in song. Jefferson — Summer so- 
journer. First saw one or two in heavy timber on May 4, and on the 12th 
only a few were here, after which none were seen. 

Cape May Warbler (P. tigrina). St. Louis — Transient. On May 2 first saw 
a fine male in song. Jefferson — Not seen. 

Summer Yellow Bird (D. mtiva). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. First 
saw*three on April 18, singing at old stands, and by the 19th many were in 
song. On the 22d of April there was a decided increase, and by the 29th 
they were mating, and were industrious songsters. May 1. — Numbers of sing- 
ing males are here, and probably many individuals in transit among them. 
This species has not yet attained that state of excitement which is incident 
to mating when the females arrive in bulk. May 5. — Their numbers have 
decreased owing to the departure of the transients. On the 17th nests were 
found. Jefferson — Summer sojourner. On May 7 first saw about a dozen 
males in as many places, and very noisy. May 8. — More numerous, and on 
the 17th was the height of the migration. May 19. — Full Summer num- 
bers ; nesting. 

Black-throated Blue Warbler (B. ccerulescem). St. Louis — Transient. Never 
seen in Spring, but once seen in Fall. Jefferson — Transient. On May 3 I 
first saw a beautiful specimen in the evergreens in my yard. It was not mo- 
lested, and remained around for five or six days, and became quite unmindful 
of our presence. This was' the first and only one seen until May 10, and on 
the 12th, although they were not numerous, still it was about the height. 
May 15. — Two were seen, and on the 17th the last one. 

Yellow-rumped Warbler (B. coronata). St. Louis — "Winter and transient vis- 
itor. On January 1 two flocks were seen ten and twenty-two birds respect- 
ively, most of which did not stay through the "Winter, though a few did. On 
February 19, in an old graveyard, which has a fine growth of several kinds 
of evergreens, I found a flock of fifteen, which had probably spent the hardest 
part of the "Winter there; their characteristic, loud "cheek" was continually 
heard. In the wood, which was populated by a flock on December 28, only 
one was found on February 22, but the chief attraction for them, the berries 
of the poison ivy, and which at the former date were quite abundant, were at 
the latter date all gone. The first of the transients came March 22, and the 
night of April 8 brought clouds of them. April 13 and 14 migration was at 
its height, and on the 17th but few were seen. April 18. — About thirty were 
found in four places. April 21. — Very numerous; in large flocks on the 
Illinois side of the Mississippi, and the same on April 29. On May 2 the 
bulk departed, and on the 5th the last one was seen. Jefferson — Tran- 
sient. On April 11, as usual, this was the first warbler seen, and, strange to 

24 Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 

say, it was a female. No more were seen until April 25, when there appeared 
three males in high plumage, and no more until May 2, when a flock of five 
were seen in the city. Previous to May 2 yellow rumps and pine creeping 
warblers were the only warblers seen, and only nine individuals in all, while 
at the same date they appeared at St. Louis. The night of May 1 marked the 
first wave of warblers, and on the 3d I found a flock of about twenty-five 
yellow rumps, both male and female, and in loud song. May 4. — Yellow 
rumps are at this date the most numerous of the warblers ; about twenty-five 
to thirty in twos and threes. About four-fifths were males in full plumage. 
May 5. — None were seen, but on the 6th about eighteen. May 7. — Males of 
last year are here ; most old males have gone. May 12. — Bulk departed, and 
on the 17th the last one was seen. 

Black and Yellow Warbler (D. maculosa). St. Louis — Transient. First 
seen on May 3, when they were numerous and singing, and on the 10th they 
were still here. May 14 to 17. Both males and females were numerous, and 
on the 21st the last one was seen. Jefferson — Transient. First saw three 
males on May 10, and on the 12th the bulk of the birds were here and the 
migration was at its height; they were the most numerous warbler of this 
date. May 20 — Two were seen, and on the 28th the last one. 

Cerulean Warbler (D. cm'ulea). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. First seen 
on April 17. Jefferson — Not seen. 

Chestnut sided Warbler (D. pennsylvanica). St. Louis — Transient. On 
April 27 first saw an old male in song, and again on May 2 and May 10. May 
11, 14 and 15, both males and females were numerous. On May 21 I found a 
female singing! May 24 — Last one seen. Jefferson — Summer sojourner. 
On May 7 first saw three or four in a miscellaneous flock of warblers. May 12 
— Not quite the bulk of the species, but on the 17th there was the bulk of the 
females, and the height of the migration. May 19 — Bulk departed ; but six 
or eight seen, all males. Only a few remain to nest, I think about four to six 
pairs in the same number of square miles about here. One nest was found, 
and the birds seen through the whole month of June. 

Bay-breasted Warbler {D. eastanea). St. Louis. — Transient. On May 3 first 
saw a male, which was silent. May 21 — Last seen of both male and female. 
Jefferson — Not seen. 

Black-poll Warbler (D. striata). St. Louis — Transient. On May 2 first saw 
one male and heard several. On May 3 the first female was seen and many 
males were singing after 11 a. m. May 10. — Still here, and from the 15th to 
the 18th both male and female were numerous. May 24. — Last one seen. 
Jefferson — Transient. On May 10 first saw one male. 17th, the bulk was 
here. May 19. None seen. May 21. — First female, which was the last of 
the species seen. 

Blackburnian Warbler (D. Uackbumia). St. Louis. — Not seen. Jefferson — 
Transient. First saw two males on May 10, and on the 12th was the height of 
the migration, though there were very few. May 16. — One was seen, and on 
the 17th the last one. 

Yellow-throated Warbler {D. dominica). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. 
First seen April 12. On April 18 three males were seen on high trees, and 
on the 19th many were in song. Jefferson — Does not occur. 

Black-throated Green Warbler {D. virens). St. Louis. Not seen. Jeffer- 

Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 25 

son — Transient. On May 5 first saw one male. May 12. — No males seen but 
several females; only two males seen this Spring. May 19. — None seen, and 
last one probably left about that time. 

Pine-creeping Warbler (D. pinus). St. Louis — On April 21 first saw one 
male among yellow-rumps and red-polls. Jefferson. On April 24, at six p. m. 
I shot a male, which had been very lively in the top of an oak; its stomach 
was full of insects and it was quite fat. Saw no more until May 3, when theie 
came a large flock of about fifty or sixty, both male and female. They showed 
their creeping habits very plainly, but sometimes flew to the ground among 
the red-polls. They were the most numerous warblers of this date, and were 
the last that I certainly identified, though think I saw some young birds or 
females on May 19, which is about the time the last of the migrants should be 
seen. So far as I know they are transient, though generally supposed to breed 
as far south as this. 

Red-poll warbler (D. palmarum). St. Louis — Transient. On April 13 first 
saw one bird among some yellow-rumps. April 19. — Many in song, and on 
the 20th they were still more numerous, and on the 21st about equal in num- 
ber to the yellow-rumps, with which they frequented the willow thickets and 
watercourses. On April 29 they were still numerous, but by May 2 the bulk 
had departed and only a few were seen. May 5. — Last one was seen. Jeffer- 
son — Transient. On May 3 first saw about forty males and females ; silent and 
continually on the ground as usual. May 4. — Saw about six parties of from 
three to five each, and on the 5th three or four more groups of twenty or 
twenty-five birds in all. May 7. — About the same, with a slight decrease, if 
anything. May 10. — Two seen, which were the last. 

Frairie Warbler (D. discolor). St. Louis — Summer sojourner (local). First 
seen on May 22, when I, for the first time, visited their breeding grounds, 
which are about ten miles from the city limits. Jefferson — Does not occur. 

Golden-crowned Thrush (S. auricapillus). St. Louis — Summer soiourner. 
First seen on April 17, when they were numerous; old males in full 
numbers and noisy until 10 a. m. May 15 — Three eggs. Jefferson — Summer 
sojourner. On April 28 I found the first ones in a tamarac swamp; they were 
in full song. First seen in hardwood timber were three on May 3, and no 
more until the 11th, and then only one. May 12 — Numerous and about the 
bulk. On May 19 they were as numerous as at any time, and continued the 
same thereafter. 

Small-billed Water Thrush (S. neevim). St. Louis — Transient. On April 21 
first saw one male in a slough; it was silent. May 2 — Had increased, and it 
was about the height of the migration ; they were in song. May 5 — The 
height still continued and was present up to the 10th. May 14 to 17 — Still 
numerous, but the last was seen on the 21st. Jefferson — Summer sojourner. 
First one seen on May 2. The bulk of the birds were here on the 12th, and 
the height of the migration was on the 19th. 

Large-billed Water Thrush (8. motacilla). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. 
First seen on April 9. May 15 — I found young in nest. Jefferson — May oc- 
cur, but not seen. 

Connecticut Warbler (0. agilis). St. Louis — Transient. First saw one 
bird on May 14 and again on the 18th. Last one seen on May 24. Jefferson — 

26 Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 

Transient. First saw one male on May 26 and a second on the 27tn, and twice 
thereafter. Last seen on May 29. 

Kentucky Warbler (0. formosa). St Louis — Summer sojourner. First seen 
on May 2, and the bulk of the birds were here on May 3. Jefferson — not seen. 

Mourning Warbler (G. Philadelphia). St. Louis — Transient. On May 16 
first saw one bird. Jefferson — Summer sojourner. On May 19 first saw one 
male, and another on the 21st. — May 25 — Twice'seen. June 1 — Has been seen 
about a dozen times this Spring. 

Maryland Yellow-throat (G. trichas). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. On 
April 17 I heard five males for the first time. April 18 — Saw sixteen males, 
which were noisy until 8 a. m. May 1 — Numbers of singing males were here, 
but probably many individuals in transit among them. On May 5 their num- 
bers were decreased by the departure of the transients. Jefferson — Summer 
sojourner. On May 12 first saw one male, and again on the 16th and 21st. No 
more than three seen in any one day this Spring. 

Yellow-breasted Chat (1. vire ns). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. On April 
23 first saw this species, and both saw and heard it every day thereafter. 
April 26 — About one-fourth are present now, both male and female, and on 
the 29th were still quite scarce. May 2 and 3 — The bulk of the birds were 
here. Jefferson — Summer sojourner. On May 19 first saw one male, which 
I shot ; a second was seen on the 21st, and was twice heard later in the 

Hooded Warbler (31. mitratus). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. First seen, 
one in song on April 17. On May 2 they were mating. Jefferson — Not- 
seen and probably does not occur. 

Black-capped Yellow Warbler (31. pusillus). St. Louis — Transient. First 
saw one male on May 9, and again on the 10th, one male. May 11, 14 to 18. 
They were numerous, both male and female. May 21. — Last one was seen. 
Jefferson— Transient. On May 12 but one was seen, and it was skulking in 
some windfalls. No more until May 20, when the first flock was seen. Sev- 
eral were seen on May 21 and and again on the 23d. May 29. — Last one 

Canadian Fly-catching Warbler (31. canadensis). St. Louis — Transient. 
First seen on May 14, when they were numerous, also on the 15th and 16th. 
May 24. — Last one seen. Jefferson — Transient. First one seen on May 26 
and again on the 27th, 28th and 29th, which was also the last one. 

Redstart (S. ruticilla). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. First saw one in 
song on April 17, and on the 29th it was very conspicuous in the woods, 
both old males and females ; no young males yet. May 2. — Dozens were met 
with, and first males of last year, but by the 5th they were decreased by the 
departure of the transients. Nest found on May 17. Jefferson— Summer so- 
journer. On May 10 first saw five males and two females. On the 12th 
the bulk of the birds were here, but it was not the height of the migration ; 
both males and females, about six of the former to one of the latter. May 
17. — The bulk of the females were here, and it was the height of the migra- 
tion for the species. May 19. — As numerous as all the other warblers 
together ; mated, mating and nesting; everywhere in the woods. Saw be- 
tween two and three hundred, both male and female, in about even numbers. 
May 22--Bulk of the transients departed. 

Bird Migration, in the Mississippi Valley. 27 

Red-eyed Vireo (V. olivacea). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. On April 
25 first saw a single individual in song, and again on the 27th. May 2 and 
3. — The bulk of the birds were here. Jefferson — Summer sojourner. On 
May 19 first saw several, but probably came several days previous. About 
the height of the migration after May 25. 

Philadelphia Vireo ( V. Philadelphia). St. Louis — Transient. First seen on 
May 21, and the last on May 22. Jefferson — Not seen. 

Warbling Vireo (V. gilva). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. On April 18 first 
saw two singing at old stands. April 22. — Have increased and are regularly 
heard, and by the 29th they were mating, and were industrious songsters. 
May 1 — Height of the migration. Jefferson. — Summer sojourner. Was the 
first vireo of the season, and came on May 5, when four single ones were seen 
at as many widely separated places ; all in full song. May 6. — Quite an in- 
crease ; heard in about a dozen places, and on the 7th they were much the 
same with a few additions. Maj r 12. — The height of the season; forty to fifty 
seen during the day. May 19. — The height still continued with much 

Yellow-throated Vireo (L.flavifrons). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. First 
seen on April 17 ; in song. May 1. — Height of the season. Jefferson — Sum- 
mer sojourner. First saw one on May 10. May 12. — Height of the season, but 
the bulk departed during the next week Saw one on May 19, and another on 
the 23d, which was the last one noted, though it probably breeds in favor- 
able localities. 

Blue-headed Vireo (L. solita^ius). St. Louis — Transient. First saw one on 
May 5, which was silent, and again on the 11th, one bird. Jefferson — Sum- 
mer sojourner. First saw five on May 10, also on the 12th, a few, and on 
the 19th, three or four. 

White-eyed Vireo (V. noveboracensis). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. On 
April 14 first saw one bird at old stands, and on the 17th, several. May 1. — 
Only about one-half regular number here ; but on the 3d they were in full 
numbers, and on the 15th a nest containing four fresh eggs was found. Jef- 
ferson. — Certainly occurs, but not identified. 

Bell's Vireo (V. belli). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. First seen on 
April 25, and not again until after May 1. On May 5 they had increased, and 
on the 11th the males were singing about seventeen times a minute. May 
15. — Full numbers. Jefferson — Probably does not occur. 

Loggerhead Shrike (L. ludovicianus). St. Louis — Summer resident. None 
seen between December 30 and February 23. March 14. — A migrating shrike 
was seen to fly north at 11 a. m., going in a straight line as far as my glass 
could reach him. It is seldom that we see small birds on their way mi- 
grating. On April 15 I found a nest, and on May 26 fledged young. Jefferson 
— Summer resident. Twice seen during the Winter, and at one time I saw it 
catch and kill an English sparrow. 

Cedar Wax-wing (A. cedrorum). St. Louis — Summer resident. First seen 
on April 9 and 12, in flocks. Jefferson — Summer sojourner. On May 10 first 
saw a flock of about twenty. Strange they should not have come earlier. May 
17. — A second flock was seen, and by the 19th they had become more com- 
mon, one or more flocks being seen every day. May 21. — First arrivals have 
passed on, and no more have come to take their place. 

28 Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 

Purple Martin (P. subis). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. First saw four 
at 2 p. m. on March 18. In the evening of April 3 the first martins came back 
again ; none had been seen since March 18. April 29. — They have steadily 
increased, and the birds of last year have begun to arrive. The bulk came 
day before yesterday, but it is not yet the height of the season. May 1. — Not 
yet the height of the season. June 16. — Twenty -two pairs have taken boxes 
in my yard, and one old pair is already feeding young, while the birds of last 
year continued to arrive, mate and build until June 4. Their arrival this 
year, not counting the scouts of March 18, may be said to cover a period of 
two months from April 3 to first week in June. Jefferson — Summer sojourner. 
First seen on April 8, after which they steadily increased, and about April 27 
were in full numbers. 

Cliff Swallow (P. lunifrons). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. First seen 
on April 14, and by the 29th had increased, but were not in full numbers. 
May 1. — About one-fourth here. May 3. — Bulk at colofties. Jefferson — Sum- 
mer sojourner. First saw one on April 4, but no more until the 24th when a 
second one appeared. April 28. — For the first time are common, and the 
bulk of the species is here. By May 7 most of the migrants had left and they 
were in about Summer numbers. 

Barn Swallow (H. erythrogastra). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. First 
seen on April 14. Jefferson — Summer sojourner. First saw one on April 27 
and on May 9, though more had arrived, they were still quite scarce. In the 
evening of May 11 the bulk arrived, but it was not yet the height of the sea- 
son. May 19. — In full Summer numbers, but not very common here ; prob- 
ably about ten or twelve pairs in the square mile upon which the town is situated 

White-bellied Swallow (T. bicolor). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. The 
first I saw was a migrating party on April 26. Jefferson — Summer sojourner. 
On April 14 first saw three flying and circling over the Rock River at 3 p. 
m. ; did not see any in the early part of the day, although I was out all the 
forenoon. By April 7 four more had come, and on the 9th they were still 
more numerous, The height of the season was about April 26. May 8. — 
Have nearly all gone in the last two days. May 8. — Quite a large flock ar- 
rived last night. June 1. — They were seen every day. 

Bank Swallow {G. riparia). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. On April 
21 first saw a party of seven going north along shore. May 1. — Have seen none 
since. May 3. — Bulk at colonies. Jefferson — Summer sojourner. On May 5 
first saw three. May 7. — About three-tenths are here. 

Rough-winged Swallow (8. serripennis). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. 
First seen on April 3 and again on the 17th in pairs, at stands. Jefferson — Not 

Scarlet Tanager (P. rubra). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. On April 27 saw 
one male at old stand and again on May 2. On May 3 I found one female and 
three males at usual stands, in song. Jefferson— Summer sojourner. First 
saw one male on May 11 and again on the 12th. They about doubled in num- 
bers during the night of May 16, and the first female was seen on the 19th, 
when the males also were a little more numerous. June 1. — Young males have 
come, but no building yet. 

Summer Red-bird (P. a'stiva). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. On April 
26 first saw one male at old stand. Jefferson — Does not occur. 

Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 29 

Evening grosbeak (H. vespertina). St. Louis — Not seen. Jefferson — "Winter 
visitant. On March 1 I killed a male and female, the first I e\er saw in 
Wisconsin, during twelve years of hunting. 

Purple Finch {C .purpureus). St Louis— Winter visitant. From January 24 
to February 14, very numerous. February 24 — Have been very scarce, only 
two seen. March 2 — Two at an old stand (one in brown) ; singing. March 
11 — Almost all gone, but on the 13th there were several new arrivals in three 
places. On March 16 I found them in small parties in five places and all 
singing beautifully, something like the warbling vireo, and on the 17th they 
were still numerous and in song. April 3 to 7 — The height of the season, 
but on the 8th the bulk departed. April 17 — Still present, but silent, on hk r h 
trees and in plain dress. On April 18 I saw four small parties in song, and 
the last one was seen on April 25. Jefferson — Transient. On April 1 first 
saw one male in fine plumage. Singing, but not in full melody. On April 4 
I saw the first flock — three males and two females. April 11 — Saw two males 
and one female; no more until April 28, when five males and two femaies 
were seen. May 2 — A flock of twenty ; was met in the height of their wedding 
attire ; six or eight much duller and the rest with no " purple." May 6 — Bulk 
departed and last one seen. 

White-winged Cross-bill (L. leucoptera). St. Louis — Not seen. Jefferson — 
Winter visitant. On April 3 first saw a single female in my yard eating apple 

Common Red-poll (2E. linaria). St. Louis — Winter visitant. Saw a flock 
of thirty to thirty-six on February 12. Jefferson — Winter visitant, though 
chiefly transient. Occasionally seen during the Winter, but most of them 
left during the cold time in January. The first flocks came back again March 
14, and the last was seen March 24. 

American Goldfinch (A. tristis). St. Louis — Summer resident. A few were 
seen on January 1, but by February 3 it was too cold for them and they al- 
most all lefr. February 12 — In a nine miles' walk saw only two birds, while 
in the same places four flocks were seen on January 29. March 16 — Are be- 
ginning to come back, and were found in four places ; a few birds only and 
in plain dress. A song once heard. On April 15 they were still scarce, and 
on the 18th single calls were heard in six places. April 20 — More conspicu- 
ous, and on the 21st was seen a flock of about twenty with the males in full 
Summer dress. On April 29 they had begun to be quite numerous, and by 
May 1 were everywhere and could be found in large flocks on high trees over 
the water. Such companies make so much noise that the song of other birds 
is drowned. They are much like blackbirds; all the voices stop suddenly for 
a moment. May 11 — Height continues, but by the 15th they had decreased. 
Jefferson — Summer sojourner. May 10 — First arrived in flocks; thirty to 
forty birds seen. May 12 — Not quite the bulk. May 19 — Numerous, but not 
the height ; heard almost constantly and still in flocks. 

Pine Goldfinch (C. pinus). St. Louis — Winter visitant. One bird seen on 
January 18. Jefferson — Winter visitant, transient and possibly Summer so- 
journer. A small flock remained about the apple trees in my yard nearly 
all Winter; in early Spring they slightly increased, and were very tame, al- 
lowing us to pass within five or six feet of them. They spent the most of 
their time upon the ground under the pines. They gradually disappeared, 

30 Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 

and the last one was noted on April 5. However, on May 19 I shot a male 
of this species, and in the latter part of May small flocks were again seen, 
and all through the month of June they were quite common. 

Snow Bunting (P. nivalis.) St. Louis — Not seen. Jefferson — Widter visi- 
tant. Seen only twice last winter. 

Lapland longspur (G. lapponicus.) St. Louis — Winter visitant. On January 
6 I saw a flock of thousands ; none others seen. Jefferson — Not seen. 

Savanna Sparrow (P. sandwichensis savanna). St. Louis — Transient. Fii st 
seen on April 23 and not met with again. May 2. — Are strangely missing. 
Jefferson — Summer sojourner, On May 17 first saw one pair, which prob- 
ably came several days before. They were heard again on May 19, and these 
were the only times they were noted this year. 

Grass Finch (P. gramineus). St. Louis — Transient. First seen on April 12. 
Jefferson — Summer sojourner. On April 12 first saw about forty, all of which 
came during the previous night. They are full of song ; mating and fighting. 
April 14 — Only half a dozen seen. Not much change from this elate until 
May 5, on which day quite an increase was apparent, and on the 6th they 
were in about Summer numbers. They are not very common for the species. 

Yellow-winged Sparrow (C. passerinus). St. Louis— Summer sojourner. On 
April 26 first saw several at old stands and others on April 27. Jefferson — 
Not seen. 

Lark Finch (0. grarnmica). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. First seen on 
April 3, and by the 29th was one of the prominent songsters of the roadside. 
Jefferson — Summer sojourner. On April .27 first saw two pairs. May 12 — 
They are quite scarce, having been seen only six or eight times this Spring. 

AVhite-crowned Sparrow (Z. leucoplirys). St. Louis — Winter and transient 
visitor. On January I saw single birds ; the same number remained in the 
same places during December, January and February; probably were the 
same individuals. March 2 — About a dozen among a flock of a hundred 
tree sparrows, all in song, and disposed to remain among the higher branches 
of the trees. March 16 — Still few and no increase. By March 30 the small 
wintering parties had about doubled in number. First flock of transients 
were seen on April 14, and again on the 18th, three very uoisy flocks. April 
29 — Often met with, but not in large flocks. Bulk departed on May 2, and 
the last was marked for May 5, nevertheless there were a few here on May 
15 and 16. Jefferson — Transient. Probably seen on April 25, but not identi- 
fied until later. May 5 — Height of the season. They were not very plentiful 
this Spring, and the last was seen about May 10. 

White-throated Sparrow (Z. albicollis). St Louis — Winter and transient 
visitor. Occurred during the winter, and to April 1 in parties of six to ten in 
old stands. The night of April 8 brought us the grand army of Peabodys. 
On April 20 they were still numerous, and on the 21st very numerous, and 
continued quite numerous up to the 29th. May 2 — The bulk departed, and 
on the 11th, 14th, and 16th there were a few young; none seen later except on 
May 24, one in adult dress, but in diseased condition, which accounted for its 
presence here. Jefferson — Transient. On March 24 first saw two, and were 
not seen again until April 23, when the first of the regular migrants came. 
By April 28 they had increased slightly, and by May 2 there was quite an 
increase, and thejaulk of the species. In the evening I found more than a 

Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 31 

.hundred, with a few white-crowns, in a patch of thick brush. May 4 — About 
same number, but more scattered, and in several new places. May 5 — 
Height of the season ; everywhere, in quite large flocks and small parties. 
Two hundred and fifty were seen in a five-mile walk ; not very many white 
crowns among them. May 6 — Bulk departed. Only about one-tenth of 
yesterday's birds remain. By the 7th many more had left. In the three 
places where they had been most common only one bird was found, but a 
flock of eighteen or twenty was seen in a new place. May 12 — Two were 
seen, and on the 14th the last one. 

Tree Sparrow (8. Montana). St. Louis. — Winter visitant. These hold second 
place in numerical strength of Winter birds. During Januaiy and February 
they rather increased, but during the week ending with February 24 they 
somewhat diminished, probably by the withdrawal of the reinforcement 
which came the first of the month. In sunny places they begin to be musical 
about this date. On March 2 they were in very large flocks, especially in the 
lowlands on the Illinois side of the river ; greatly outnumbering there the snow- 
birds, which are the more numerous on this side. March 11. — Have thinned 
out considerably. March 14. — Were found in several places, but not nu- 
merous. March 17. — Still with us, but few in numbers. April 7. — Last one 
seen. Jefferson. — A few are Winter visitants, but much the larger portion are 
transients. On March 24, first saw a flock of fifteen, which remained for 
nearly a month. On April 4 the bulk of the species were here, and on the 
12th was the height of the season ; about one hundred and fifty seen. Only 
two days later (the 14th) but four birds were found in a long walk. April 
21. — One flock of ten or twelve was found in a thicket; none at the brush 
piles, where I have found them all the Spring. These were the last I saw. 

Chipping Sparrow (S. domestica). St. Louis. — Summer sojourner. First 
seen on April 4. Bulk of the species here on April 9, and by the 15th they 
had commenced building. Jefferson. — Summer sojourner. On April 11 first 
saw six single males. April 12. — A few more came. Transients left about 
April 16, but another wave came on May 3, which made them again numerous. 

Clay-colored Sparrow (-9, pallida). Seen neither at St. Louis for Jefferson. 

Field Sparrow (S. pusilla). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. On March 13 
first saw one male, in song, at the same place at which I found the first bird 
last year, twelve days earlier, on March 1. March 16. — Several old acquaint- 
ances have returned, and are sitting on the same trees as in former years. 
They are full of praise, if song means praise. March 17. — A few more — the 
bulk of the species. March 30. — The height of the migration. Jefferson. — Sum- 
mer sojourner. First seen by me on April 25, but they probabty came some 
time before. May 10. — Seen for the second time; seems to be quite uncom- 
mon about here. 

Black Snowbird (J. hyemalis). St. Louis — Winter visitant. Met with every- 
where ; it is the most numerous of our Winter birds. They increased during 
January and the first part of February, and then in the latter part of the same 
month the new arrivals seemed to leave us again. March 11 — Are decidedly 
less numerous, and what is more important, they are much less conspicuous 
than during the last month. They keep silent, and on the ground, even 
during the warm hours, and on disturbing them I was surprised at the large 
proportion of light-colored individuals among them. Judging from this and 

32 Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 

from their different behavior, I think that many of the old birds, which were 
in fine plumage in February, have departed, leaving behind the young birds, 
which will remain with us three or four weeks longer. On March 14 they 
were found in several places, but not numerous. March 16 — As numerous as 
ever, and in large flocks ; many old birds among them. Again on the 17th 
large flocks were seen. On March 30 they were found collected in large flocks, 
and very much excited in spite of the cool rain, and in a place where twenty 
wintered, I found an army of two hundred, singing, chasing, etc. On April 
4 the bulk of the species departed, and the last one was seen on April 12. 
Jefferson — Winter and transient visitor. The first single ones came from the 
north October 17, 1882, and the first flock — over a hundred — on October 20. 
By November 8 they had scattered into small parties of five to eight, and 
these nearly all left in December. Parties of from three to seven were seen 
on January 3, 8 and 31, and then only one bird until March 23, when one 
flock of from eighteen to twenty appeared. Small flocks were seen until 
April 2, they then suddenly increased, and the bulk came on April 4. I then 
saw about one hundred and fifty in a few acres. The same day (April 4) was 
about the height of the season, for large numbers, perhaps the bulk, left that 
night. On April 12 only three were seen, and I thought each day would take 
away the last one, but they stayed — though quiet and looking very disconso- 
late — until on April 28, when the last straggler departed. 

Song Sparrow (M.fasciata). St. Louis — Winter visitant. Not many, but 
certain to find a few along the banks of creeks. Same conditions and num- 
bers continued all through December, January, and February. On March 9 
they were found in a very musical mood, but in same numbers. March 13 — 
New arrivals observed, and on the 14th song was heard in many places. 
April 6 — The height of the season. The bulk departed on April 8, and the 
last one/was seen on April 9. Jefferson — Summer sojourner. First saw three 
on March 24, and during the week from March 25 to 31, seven were seen. 
April 4 — Everywhere in twos and threes ; forty to fifty seen. On April 12 
was the height of the season ; two hundred seen. April 14 — Not one-tenth 
were left, but by the 21st they were more numerous, and in about Summer 

Swamp Sparrow (M. palustris). St. Louis — Winter and transient visitor. 
On January 29 one bird was found in the same place as last Winter. March 2 
and 8. — Three birds were seen, and on the 14th they were seen several times. 
The bulk arrived on April 4, and the height of the season was on the 9th. 
April 17. — Decreased; one party only, but on the 20th there were small parties 
in many places, and they were still numerous on May 2. May 5. — Last. May 
14, 15 and 17.— Single young birds. Jefferson. — Summer sojourner. I saw 
the first one on April 28, but they probably came a week or more ago. 

Lincoln's Finch (M. lincolni). St. Louis. — First seen on April 23. May 1- 
— They are strangely missing, but on the 14th and 16th I saw four birds. Jef- 
Jerson. — Not seen. 

Fox Sparrow (P. iliaca). St. Louis. — Transient. First saw two on Feb- 
ruary 20, and on March 11 a few additional individuals. March 14. — Found 
three at one place and several at another, all singing. On April 3 was the 
height of the season. April 5. — The bulk departed, and the last one was 
seen on April 7. Jefferson. — Transient. First saw twenty-four in two places 

Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 33 

on April 4, at which time possibly the bulk of the species was here. Last seen 
on April 11. 

Chewink (P. erythrophthalmus). St. Louis. — Summer resident and sojourner. 
Three birds seen on December 30,, and they stayed through January and Feb- 
ruary, both male and female. On March 14th calls were heard in three places 
and on March 16 saw only four males. The bulk of the species were here 
on April 5, and the height of the season was from April 9 to 15, and longer. 
On April 15 they commenced building. Jefferson. — Summer sojourner. First 
saw three males on April 21, and on the 25th were heard several males. May 
3. — Xot more than twenty seen so far this Spring, and no females. On May 
10 a few females arrived, and by the 12th it was almost at the height of the 
season. May 17.— Bulk of the females arrived, and the height of the species. 
On May 19 the height was past and are building. 

Cardinal Grosbeak (G. mrginianus). St. Louis. — Summer resident. Was 
seen every day, single or in pairs. Jefferson. — Does not occur. 

Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Z.ludoviciana). St. Louis.— Summer sojourner. On 
April 22 first saw two males in song at old stands. The bulk of the species 
was here from April 25 to 29, on the last of which dates they were the most 
conspicuous and noisy birds. The females have arrived, and old males are 
back in full numbers. Jefferson. — Summer sojourner. On May 6 first saw 
four ; all males. May 7. — About one-tenth are here, and on May 8 they were 
somewhat more numerous. May 10. — Females arrived, but only a few. May 
12.— About the height of the season for males, and on the 17th was the height 
for females. May 19. — About in full numbers, and most of them mated. 

Indigo Bunting (P. cyanea). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. First saw a 
flock of about eight males on April 21. This species and the next were to- 
gether and in company with v>hite-crowns feeding on ploughed ground, along- 
side a hedge, which borders a pond. May 1. — Are scarce, but have met with 
singing males once or twice each day. May 2. — Bulk of the species. First 
females and many males in song. May 3. — Wandering troops. Jefferson — 
Summer sojourner. First saw one male on May 17, and again on the 19th 
several were seen, but no females. May 29. — First female. 

Black-throated Bunting (S. americana). St. Louis— Summer sojourner. On 
April 21 first saw a party of twenty singing males. April 29. — In small flocks, 
which dispersed during the morning hours of warm days; re-entering old 
stands. May 1. — The bulk of the species and they are now very conspicuous 
in the mornings, singing or flying singly, or in parties calling. Jefferson. — 
Occurs only as a rare straggler, but not seen. 

Bobolink (D. oryzivorus). St. Louis. — Transient. On May 2, in the evening, 
great numbers were seen going north in five large flocks. May 3. — Two males 
were seen in company with redwings, and by the 5th they were present in 
large numbers, and from the 15th to the 17th I noted a flock of a hundred and 
fifty males and females. Last one was seen on May 21. Jefferson. — Summer 
sojourner. First saw one flying and singing on May 5 and on the 6th two 
more. May 7. — There was a slight increase; about a dozen seen, and on the 
10th there was a still greater increase, but they were not yet common. The 
bulk arrived on May 12, and on the 19th. was the height for males, though 
not for females. On May 26 the first females came and on June 1 they were 
thinking about building. 

34 Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 

Cowbird (31. ater). St. Louis. — Summer sojourner. First seen on April 5, 
and the height of the season was on the 12th. Jefferson. — Summer sojourner. 
On April 21 first saw one flock of about forty males and females. The bulk 
of the species arrived on April 28, and on May 12 it was the height of the 
season ; about five hundred seen. May 19. — Just about in Summer numbers. 
Yellow-headed Black-bird (X icteroeephalus). tot. Louis. — Rare visitor ; not 
seen this year. Jefferson. — Not seen, but may occur locally, as I know it is a 
regular breeder at Green Lake, fifty miles north of here. At that lake, twelve 
years ago, I found only one pair, breeding at the south end the next year three 
pairs, and two years later they were quite numerous there, but nowhere else. 
The-next year one pair moved to the north end of the lake, and this Summer 
on revisiting the place, I found them all around that lake and several neigh- 
boring ones. 

Eed and Buff-shouldered Blackbird {A.pliainiceus). St Louis. — Summer so- 
journer. On March 3 first saw many small flocks in the swanip on the Illi- 
nois side of the river just opposite St. Louis, but none here yet. By March 11 
they had spread a little more in small troops, mostly males, and on the 14th 
they were the most conspicuous birds in the lowlands. Vast numbers were 
in noisy flocks; mostly males. On March 17 large flocks went north above 
the river, and on April 4 the number here was very great. April 6.— Height 
of the season, which continued up to the 29th. Jefferson. — Summer sojourner. 
First saw nine on March 17 and on the 23d the first flock, which was the last 
until April 4, when, in the evening, two hundred and fifty went north. On 
April 9 very few seemed to have passed and a walk of half a dozen miles did 
not reveal as many flocks. On the 12th they were for the first time common, 
but there were no large flocks, but a good many scattering single ones, all 
males and all singing. April 21. — First females. April 28. — Height of the 

Meadow Lark (S. magna). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. First seen on 
March 3, when they were quite numerous and noisy in Illinois, opposite the 
city, but only once met wHh on this side of the river. By March .11 they 
were slowly taking up old stands, ana on the 14th their song was heard on 
all sides, unusually numerous this year. Jefferson — Summer sojourner. On 
March 23, first saw fifteen to twenty single males; no females until April 1, 
and no flocks at any time. All that were here on April 9 were mated. 

Orchard Oriole (I. spurius). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. On April 18 
first saw one male, which was very dark, and on the 19th another one, singing. 
April 21. — First male of last year, and on the 22nd there was a slight increase. 
April 29. — It is becoming quite prominent ; the first female and a few males 

of last year have arrived, but the species is not yet at its height. May 3. 

Bulk of the species, and in wandering troops. Jefferson — Should be here 
but not seen. 

Baltimore Oriole (I. galbula). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. On April 19, 
first saw two, which were shy, and almost silent. April 20. — Two more and 
on the 22nd a slight increase. April 29.— Bulk of the species, and they are 
to-day the most conspicuous and noisy birds. The females have arrived, and 
old males are back in full numbers. Jefferson — Summer sojourner. First 
seen on May 6, and the next day about one-tenth were here. May 8. Some- 
what more common. On the 10th the females arrived, but only a few, and 

Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 35 

the 12th was the height of the season for males, but not yet the bulk of the 
females. May 19.— The height of the season is past, but yet no signs of 

Rusty Blackbird (S. ferrugineus). St. Louis— Transient. On December 28 
first saw about thirty resting on a high tree. Not usually found here in 
Winter. On March 14 there was quite a number in small flocks in the low- 
lands. Last seen on April 13. Jefferson — Probably seen, but not certainly 

Purple Grackle (Q. purpureus aenens). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. Saw 
four on January 18 and two more on the 29th. On March 14 the first of 
Summer sojourners came ; a very few among the other blackbirds in the low- 
lands. March 16 — First seen in Missouri. On April 15 they were mating 
but still going to the common roosting place. April 22 — At this date they 
were carrying building material. Jefferson — Summer sojourner. First saw 
one on March 25. March 31 — Seen seven times this Spring, ten birds in all. 
In the afternoon of April 4 I saw the first flock, numbering eleven, and later 
another flock migrating. On April 9 they began building in my yard. April 
21— Two small flocks were seen, but not yet mated. 

Common Crow (G '. frugiwrus). St. Louis — Resident. Roosting by thousands 
in Winter among the willows opposite St. Louis. On March 14 only a few 
were seen in the lowlands, where they had been very numerous two weeks 
before. Jefferson — Winter sojourner. About half a dozen wintered with us 
and were seen every few days. A few more pissed through in early Spring, 
but no larger flock than a dozen was seen at any time. Two full sets were 
found on April 7. 

Blue Jay (G. cristata). St. Louis — Resident. Generally found in troops of 
from five to seven. On April 27 twenty were seen in a flock on wing and 
again on May 1. Jefferson — Resident 

Shore Lark (E. alpestris). St. Louis— Resident. On February 24 they were 
the most conspicuous of our birds ; mating and singing. They are often seen 
now in the air, singly, with a hovering flight, as if uncertain what direction 
to take, and making an inquiring call as if in search of somebody. They rise 
to a height of several hundred feet, drift slowly along for a mile or so and 
then after a few minutes return to the very spot they had left. Jefferson— 
Usually Summer sojourner and sometimes a Winter sojourner in small num- 
bers. The first for 1883 came on February 24. By April 4 all migrants had 

Kingbird (T. Carolinensis). St. Louis. — Summer sojourner. First saw a 
silent one on April 18 — a beautiful bird— and on April 20 a second one was 
seen. April 29. — Begins to be conspicuous, and by May 1 it was increasing 
slowly. Jefferson — Summer sojourner. On May 6 first saw only one, and 
on the 7th three more, but silent. May 10. — Bulk of the species and almost 
the height of the season — a great increase. May 12. — Height of the season 
By the 19th the height had passed. 

Great-crested Fly-catcher (31. crinitus). St. Louis. — Summer sojourner 
First saw two on April 17 ; they were silent. On April 20 the bulk of the 
species came; noisy Jefferson.— Summer sojourner. First saw one on May 12, 
and on the 19th one more. Only about a dozen seen during the whole Summer. 

Phoebe Bird (S. Fuscus). St. Louis. — Summer sojourner. First saw a pair 

36 Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 

on March 16, and on the 17th two more. A nest was found on April 9. Jeffer- 
son - — Summer sojourner. On April 4 first saw three, and on the 9th about 
three or four to the mile. April 10.— Quite common; on the 11th there was 
do increase, but a few more on the 12th. 

Olive-sided Flycatcher (C borealis). St. Louis.— Transient. First seen on 
May 22, and last on the 24th. Jefferson— Not seen. 

Wood Pewee (C virens). St. Louis.— Summer sojourner. On May 5 first 
saw several; calling. Jefferson.— Summer sojourner. On May 26 was the 
first I saw, though I think it came long ago. 

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher {E. flaviventris). St. Louis. — Transient. On May 
14 first saw one bird and again on May 16. Seen also on May 21 and 24. Last 
on May 26. Jefferson. — Transient. First saw one male on May 19. — Last one 
on May 28. 

Acadian Flycatcher (E. Acadicus). St. Louis.— Summer sojourner. On May 
3 many more were seen at old stands. Jefferson.— Not seen. 

Traill's Flycatcher (E. jjusillus trailli). K St. Louis. — Summer sojourner. 
First saw several, and heard them calling on May 5. Jefferson.— Not seen. 

Least Flycatcher (E. minimus). St. Louis.— Transient. On May 5 first saw 
one male, which was calling. From May. 14 to 18 they were numerous. Jef- 
ferson.— Summer sojourner. First saw one on May 7, and on the 8th it was 
seen several times. May 10.— Nearly full numbers, and on the 12th was the 
height. They are present everywhere and have seemed to increase regularly 
from the first. May 19.— Still the height ; over a hundred seen. June 1.— Still 
decidedly numerous. 

Ruby-throated Humming bird (T. Golubris). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. 
First saw one male on May 11, and on the 14th the first female. May 18. — 
Mating. Jefferson — Summer sojourner. First saw one male on May 15. May 
19. — Three seen and two shot with No. 10 shot; not a feather injured. June 
1 — -Height of the season. 

Chimney Swift (C. pehxsgica). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. First seen 
on April 8. By the 14th they had increased, and on the 18th the bulk of the 
species was here. Jefferson. — Summer sojourner. On May 1 first saw six, 
which came in the afternoon, and took immediate possession of my chimney. 
May 4. — First flocks have almost gone; only three or four birds are circling 
over the city today. May 9. — Flock of seventeen seen, apparently mi- 
grants. In the afternoon there were many more and the height of the season. 
May 12. — Migrants have about all gone. 

Whip-poor-will (C. vociferus). St. Louis— Summer sojourner. First seen 
on May 23, but probably came before. Jefferson — Summer sojourner. On 
May 19 first saw one pair, and none heard or seen thereafter. 

Night Hawk {0. popctue). St. Louis — Summer sojourner. First seen on 
May 15, and also on the 16th and 18th, when there were a great many going 
north ; numerous along the border of wood. Jefferson — Summer sojourner. 
First saw one on May 21, and on the 31st I found fresh eggs. 

Hairy Woodpecker (P. villosus). Resident at both places. 

Downy Woodpecker (P. pubeseens). Resident at both places. 

Yellow-bellied Woodpecker (S. varius). St. Louis— Transient usually. On 
December 28 saw one in the woods, but no more seen during the remainder 
of the Winter. The first this Spring were four birds, with no adult male 

Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. 37 

among them, seen on February 22. March 11. — Still the same at this date, and 
on March 13 a newly-arrived female "was seen, and on April 4 and 5, an old 
bird in high plumage. Jefferson. — Summer sojourner. On April 4 first saw 
one flock of fifteen to twenty males and females ; very active, mating, and 
a few in pairs. April 12. — The flock seems to have passed on, as I found only 
one left. No more flocks seen during the Spring, but single ones and pairs 
seen every few days. 

Pileated Woodpecker (//. pileatus). St. Louis.— Resident. Seen on May 22. 
Jefferson.- Not seen. 

Red-bellied Woodpecker (G. carolinus). St. Louis. --Summer, and I think 
also Winter, sojourner. On February 22 first saw two pairs, which were very 
much excited and noisy at breeding stands. Jefferson.— Probably seen, but 
not certainly identified. 

Red-headed Woodpecker (M. erythrocephalus). St. Louis. — Summer resi- 
dent. Remained through the Winter ; two single birds and one pair seen in 
a week. On February 22 they were in the same numbers. On April 12 
many were found in heavy timber, but not generally distributed. May l.~ 
Evident increase during the last few days. Jefferson.— Summer sojourner. 
On May 6 five males came in the afternoon, and during the following night 
about fifteen per cent came. May 12.— Almost the height of the season. 

Yellow-shafted Flicker (G. auraius). St. Louis.— Summer resident. Re- 
mained through the Winter; twosetninone week. On March 14 several 
were here in company with robins and blackbirds. The bulk of the species 
was here on April 4, and from the 4th to the 8th was the height of transients. 
Jefferson.— Summer sojourner. First saw one on April 8, and next day three 
more. On April 9 there were a few more, and on the 10th they were heard 
every few minutes. On April 11 there was no increase, but the 21st brought 
us a flock of seven. 

Belted Kingfisher (G. alcyon). St. Louis.— Summer sojourner. First seen 
on April 6, and by the 14th they were nest digging. Jefferson.— Summer so- 
journer. First saw one on April 4, and on the 11th two birds, seen for the 
third time. 

Yellow-billed Cuckoo (G.americanus). St. Louis.— Summer sojourner. First 
one noticed on May 16. Jefferson.— Summer sojourner. This and the next 
were undoubtedly seen about May 21, but not close enough to distinguish 

Black-billed Cuckoo (G. erythrophtlialmus). St. Louis.— Summer sojourner. 
First seen on May 2.. 

br-r- c=3-@-^^ ;=== e)^ 

Chicago, Illinois, U. S. A. 

Bulletin No 2. 

ill Geo. L. Toppan, editor. 

-A.:E»I^XX_i, 1887. 


GEO. K. HAZLITT & CO., 172-174 S. Clark St. 
Chicago, III. 

^EEJP ■ c^^@rf=^ ■ ^=1 


* — -TH E— — * 





GEO L. TOPPAN, Editor. 



GEO. K. HAZLITT & CO., 172-174 S. Clark St. 
Chicago, III. 


Our first publication was so well received and we are in receipt 
of so many encouraging words in reference to it, that it has been 
decided to publish, at such intervals as may seem expedient, a series 
of bulletins. These will be composed mainly of papers read before 
the Club, and will be confined mostly, if not entirely, to the orni- 
thology and cology of North America, north of the Mexican boun- 

Several papers appear in the pi-esent number which were writ- 
ten prior to the publication of the new Code and Check-list of The 
American Ornithologists' Union, and, as the classification and 
nomenclature therein given have been adopted by the Club and 
ornithologists generally, we have taken the liberty of revising such 
papers so that they may conform to this list. 

In this connection a short history of the Club may be interesting. 

Sometime during July, 1883, a notice was sent to several per- 
sons in the city that an attempt would be made to organize an Orni- 
thological Club. On August 23d the following named gentlemen 
responded in person : 

Dr. J. W., G. Frean Morcom, F. L. Rice, 

C. C. Whitacre, Jos. L. Hancock, A.J. White, 

Geo. L. Toppan, H. K. Coale, 

All agreed that it would be a good thing to have a club in the 
city, and a committee was appointed to draft a constitution and by- 
laws. These were adopted at the next meeting, (Sept. 6th), when 
the Club was duly organized with ten active members. 

It was moved and unanimously carried to name the Club The 
Ridgway Ornithological Club of Chicago, in honor of the eminent 
ornithologist, Mr. Robert Ridgway, of Washington, D. C. 

Officers for the first year were elected as follows : 

Dr. J. W. Velie, President; G. Frean Morcom, Vice-President 
and Treasurer; H. K. Coale, Secretary; Jos. L. Hancock, Curator; 
F. L. Rice, Librarian. 

At the meeting held March 6th, 1884, the question of incor- 
porating the Club was discussed and a committee appointed to 


investigate it. This was done, and, as the report was favorable, it 
was brought before the Club at the April meeting. An affirmative 
decision was arrived at, and on April 21st, 18S4, the Club became 
an incorporated body under the laws of the State of Illinois. So 
far we have lost but two of the original members, while many 
others have since joined us. 

The Club owes much of its success and prosperity to its effi- 
cient Secretary and Treasurer, Mr. H. K. Coale, through whose 
efforts its organization was first secured and whose unflagging 
interest in its success has done much to promote its general welfare. 

During the past year our constitution and by-laws were found 
to be very incomplete, and at a special meeting held February 16th, 
1S86, the subject was discussed, and a committee of three, consist- 
ing of Messrs. Toppan, Deane and Coale, was appointed by the 
Chair to make the necessary revisions. The report of this commit- 
tee was received at the next regular meeting, March nth, and at 
the April meeting it was accepted and the new constitution and by- 
laws went into effect. 

In the last fiscal year the following donations were received 
and are hereby gratefully acknowledged: 

From C. B. Cory, a copy of three of his works. (A Naturalist 
in the Magdalen Islands, Birds of the Bahamas, and Birds of 
Hayti and San Domingo?) 

From R. Ridgway, six books. (5 vols. Baird, Brewer & Ridg- 
ivay, N. A. Birds, a copy of the A. O. U. Code and Check-list, 
and a number of photographs illustrating the sylva of the Wabash 
Valley of Illinois.) 

From A. W. Butler, a copy of the B2illetin of the Brookville 
Society of Natural History. 

From E. W. Nelson, a copy of his Alaskan Notes. 

From C. W. Beckham, a copy of his Birds of Kentucky. 

From H. Seebohm, three vols, of his British Birds'^ Eggs. 

From J. M. Wheaton, one copy of his Report on the Birds 
of Ohio. 

From H. Coale, a number of skins of foreign and native birds 
and several nests and eggs of native birds. 

The Editor. 






This Club shall be known as the Ridgway Ornithological Club 
of Chicago. 



The object of this Club shall be the increase and diffusion of 
ornithological knowledge, by the reading and publication of origi- 
nal papers; the interchange of personal experiences; the acquisition 
of a Library and Collection ; and other suitable means. 



Sec. I. The officers of this Club shall be a President, Vice- 
President, Secretary and Treasurer, and a Curator and Librarian. 

Sec. 2. The Standing Committees shall be as follows: a Com- 
mittee on Membership, consisting of three; a Committee on 
Finances, consisting of three. 

Sec. j. All officers and members of Standing Committees 
shall be chosen by ballot at the annual meeting, and shall sei - ve 
until their successors are duly elected. 


Sec. 4. Members of Committees shall serve three years, their 
terms of office expiring in such a manner as will render the election 
of one new member necessary at each annual meeting. 

Sec. 5. Vacancies occurring from any cause in any of the reg- 
ular offices of the Club or Standing Committees, shall be filled by 
ballot at any regular meeting, notice of such election being given 
by the Secretary. 



Sec. I. The duties of the President shall be those usually per- 
taining to his office. 

Sec. 2. The same shall be the duties of the Vice-President in 
the absence of the President. 

Sec. j. The duties of the Secretary shall be those usually per- 
taining to his office. 

Sec. 4. The Treasurer shall receive all initiation fees and dues, 
and pay all approved bills. He shall keep an accurate account of 
receipts and expenditures, and the financial relation of members to 
the Club, and present a statement of the same at each annual meeting. 

Sec. 5. The Curator shall have charge of the Collection. He 
shall see that all specimens are correctly labelled and recorded in 
the register of the Collection, and shall make a report of the condi- 
tion of the Collection at each annual meeting. 

Sec. 6. The Librarian shall have charge of the Library. He 
shall see that all books, pamphlets, reports, or publications of any 
kind received by the Club are duly numbered and catalogued, and 
shall make a report of the condition of the Library at each annual 

Sec. 7. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Membership 
to examine into and report on the standing of each applicant for 
membership at the meeting following that on which such applica- 
tion was made. 

Sec. 8. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Finances to 
incur all necessary expenditures and approve all bills before they 
shall be paid by the Treasm - er; they shall also examine and audit 
the Treasurer's accounts, and make a report at each annual meeting. 

Sec. g. The President, Vice-President, and Secretary, shall be 
ex-officio the Executive Committee of the Club, whose duties it 


shall be to provide suitable scientific work for the meetings, and to 
determine the order in which papers and reports shall be read and 



Sec. i. The Club shall consist of Active Members, Corre- 
sponding Members, and Honorary Members. 

Sec. 2. Any ornithologist of good standing shall be eligible 
for membership. 

Sec. j. Each applicant for membership must be recommended 
in writing by at least two members of the Club. If the report of 
the Committee on Membership be favorable, the applicant shall 
then be balloted for, and if four-fifths of the votes cast be in his 
favor, he shall be declared elected. Such election must be consum- 
mated by the payment of the initiation fee within thirty days. 

Sec. 4. Any member in good standing may withdraw from 
membership by paying his dues and notifying the Club in person 
or by letter. 

Sec. 5. Any member who shall be found guilty of ungentle- 
manly conduct or dishonest dealings, may be expelled or removed 
from office by a three-fourths vote of the members present at a reg- 
ular meeting, provided that the charges shall have been investigated 
and sustained by a committee of three who shall be appointed for 
that purpose, and due notice has been sent to every member stating 
the date of meeting at which final action is to be taken. 

Sec. 6. Candidates for admission into the Club as correspond- 
ing members must be proposed in writing by two members and bal- 
loted for, any candidate receiving three negative ballots being re- 
jected. A candidate rejected for corresponding membership shall 
be ineligible thereto for two years after such rejection. Correspond- 
ing members shall be entitled to all the privileges of active member- 
ship, except the right to vote or to hold office. 

Sec. 7. The Club may elect, by unanimous vote, distinguished 
ornithologists to honorary membership, who shall be entitled to all 
the privileges of active membership, except the right to vote or to 
hold office. 

Sec. 8. Corresponding and honorary members shall be exempt 
from payment of dues. 




This Constitution may be amended at any regular meeting, by 
a vote of three-fourths of the members present, provided that notice 
of such proposed amendment shall have been given at the meeting 
preceding the last meeting of the Club, and have been mailed to 
every member. 




This Club shall meet on the second Thursday evening of each 
month. The meetings occurring on the second Thursday in May 
shall be known as annual meetings, and others as regular meetings. 
Special meetings may be called at any time by the President, or on 
written request of three members. But at such meetings cognizance 
shall be had of such business only as is specified in the calls for the 



Sec. i. At annual meetings seven members shall constitute a 
quorum. The order of business shall be: 

1. Reading of Minutes. 

2. Annual Reports of Secretary, Treasurer and Standing 


3. Election of Officers. 

4. Miscellaneous Business. 

5. Adjournment. 


Sec. 2. At regular meetings five members shall constitute a 
quorum. The order of business shall be: 
I. Reading of Minutes. 








1 1 

Report of Committee on Membership. 

Election of Members. 

Proposition of Candidates. 

Reading of Papers and Discussion. 

Reception of Donations. 


Reports of Committees. 

Unfinished Business. 

New Business. 




No member shall be entitled to more than ten minutes in dis- 
cussing any subject or motion except by special invitation of the 



The initiation fee shall be three dollars. The annual dues 
shall be six dollars, payable annually or semi-annually. No mem- 
ber who shall be in arrears for dues at the time of the annual meet- 
ing shall be entitled to vote, and if any member fail to pay his dues 
for one year he may be suspended, but he may be restored to mem- 
bership by a vote of the Club and payment of all arrearages. 



No books shall be taken from the Library, or specimens from 
the Collection, except with the permission of the Curator and Libra- 
rian, and he shall in all cases take a receipt for the same. 




These By-Laws may be amended at any regular meeting by a 
vote of three-fourths of the members present, provided that notice 
of such proposed amendment shall have been given at the meeting 
preceding the last meeting of the Club, and have been mailed to 
every member. 



Robert's Rules of Order shall be the parliamentary guide in 
the meetings of this Club. 




The presentation of these notes on the birds of Corpus Christi 
and vicinity is the result of my observations from March 16th to 
April ist, 1S84. 

The object of the trip South was to collect material and make 
notes of the birds on the Lower Rio Grande of Texas, but upon ar- 
riving at Galveston, I found that the steamer which formerly plied 
between Galveston and Brownsville did not stop at Corpus Christi, 
at which place I intended to remain a sufficient length of time to 
take notes of the wading birds. I proceeded to Corpus Christi by 
rail, where I felt it advantageous to remain, as I had the co-opera- 
tion of an able assistant, and as the locality presented an unusual 
harvest for ornithological research. 

Expression of my grateful acknowledgment to Mr. George F. 
Morcom, of Chicago, in whose interest the trip was taken, is given 
within, and were it not for a severe illness contracted on a camping 
tour, these notes would have been swelled to a volume. 

1. Larus argentatus smithsonianus Coues. [American 
Herring Gull). Common on the coast and about the Bay. 

2. Gelochelidon nilotica (Hasselq.). [Gull-billed Tern) m 
Observed on the coast of the Bay March 26th. A set of three eggs 
was taken, together with the male bird, on Bird Island, May 23d. 

3. Sterna tschegrava Lepech. [Caspian Tern). Seen 
about the Bay March 26th. 

4. Sterna forsteri Nutt. [Forster' ) s Tern). Quite com- 
mon about the Bay and on Bird Island March 26th. 

5. Sterna fuliginosa Gmel. [Sooty Tern). Observed 
about the reefs March 26th. 

6. Rynchops nigra Linn. [Black Skimmer). A male and 


female were taken May 25th, together with a set of five eggs. No 
nest was built, the eggs being deposited on the bare ground. 

7. Phalacrocorax mexicanus (Brandt). {Mexican Cor- 
morant). Several birds were seen on the tops of old piles that pro- 
jected from the water some distance from the coast at Corpus 
Christi. This species is evidently the same as that observed by Mr. 

8. Pelecanus erytheorhynchos Gmel. {American 
White Pelican). Several flocks were seen flying over the city in 

the latter part of March. 

9. Pelecanus fuscus Linn. [Brown Pelican). On March 
26th I saw large flocks of these birds across the Bay from Corpus 
Christi, and on April 15th a friend took five eggs on Bird Island. 
The eggs were laid on the bare ground. 

10. Anas boschas Linn. {Mallard). Several specimens 
were shot on the Nueces River in company with the Gadwall. 

11. Anas strepera Linn. [Gadtvall). Seen in large num- 
bers April 1st, on the Nueces River. 

12. Spatula clypeata (Linn.). [Shoveller). Several speci- 
mens were shot April 1st, on the Nueces River. 

13. Aythya Americana (Eyt.). [Redhead). A few were 
seen April 1st, on the Nueces River. 

14. Aythya affinis (Eyt.). {Lesser Scaup Duck). Large 
flocks were seen on the Nueces River April 1st. 

15. Chen hyperborea nivalis (Forst.). [Greater Snow 
Goose). On March 27th, as we drove up to Mr. King's ranch ? 
which is located about ten miles -riorth of Corpus Christi, a large 
flock of Snow Geese alighted in an adjoining pasture not twenty 
yards off. So tame were they, that, should one not well informed 
observe them, he would easily mistake them for the domestic goose. 
On our alighting from the wagon they rose from the ground, but 
settled down again a few paces off. My friend unhitched one of 
the horses and started after them, taking care to keep in step with 
the horse's front legs. When within a gun range, a large, dark, 
peculiarly marked specimen was shot. 

Many could have been taken had we been so disposed. 

16. Ardea herodias, Linn. [Great Blue Heron). This 
beautiful bird was seen on the flats north of Corpus Christi on 
March 18th, and on May 15th a nest containing three eggs was 
brought to me. 

* Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey. Vol. V, p. 155. 


17. Ardea tricolor ruficollis (Gosse). {Louisiana 
Heron). Common on the flats north of Corpus Christi. A nest 
and five eggs were taken by my assistant in 1S83. 

18. Nycticorax nycticorax n^evius (Bodd.). (Black- 
crowned Night Heron). Observed specimens on the flats north of 
the city March 27th. Five eggs were obtained, which were taken 
by a friend in June, 1S83. 

19. Grus mexicana (Miill.). (Sandhill Crane). March 
29th, while on our homeward journey from a three days camping 
trip, several of these birds were seen about five miles north of the 
city, in an open field where the grass was knee-high. Several shots 
were fired at them from the wagon, but none were obtained. They 
were all in dark plumage. 

20. Himantopus mexicanus (Miill.). (Black-necked Stilt). 
A few were seen on the flats north of the city on various trips. 

21. Macrorhamphus griseus (Gmel.). (Doxvitcher). Two 
specimens were taken March 26th on the coast northwest of the 
city. These were taken from a flock in which were a number of 
Sanderlings (Calidris arcnaria). 

22. Calidris arenaria (Linn.). (Sanderling). Small 
groups of these birds were seen scattered along the beach feeding 
at the water's edge. 

23. Symphemia semipalmata (Gmel.). ( Willet). Common 
on the borders of Corpus Christi Bay and the flats. 

24. Charadrius dominicus Mull. (American Golden 
Plover). Several flocks were seen on the flats north of Corpus 
Christi on March 26th. 

25. ^Egialitis vocifera (Linn.). (Killdeer). A specimen 
was taken April 1st about ten miles west of the city. Several were 
also seen on the edge of the Nueces River. 

26. Arenaria interpres (Linn.). (Turnstone). Common 
along the coast at Corpus Christi and at Bird Island. 

27. HyEMATOPUS palliatus Temm. (American Oyster- 
catcher). While crossing the Bay, which lies about three miles 
west of the city, on the afternoon of March 26th. these birds were 
seen in abundance on the oyster beds, which at that time were 
almost entirely submerged. Here, together with Long-billed Cur- 
lews, Avocets and other species of wading birds, they were seen in 
countless numbers. 

28. Colinus virginianus texanus (Lawr.). Texan Bob- 
ivhite). A common summer resident. In fact the most common 


bird met with on my trips, and found in widely different localities. 
They are most common in open fields. In the middle of the day 
they generally seek some cover, such as is found sparsely dotting 
the fields. In the early morning they were most abundant, and the 
familiar note of " bob-white " was heard from all sides. 

29. Meleagris gallopavo Linn. ( Wild Turkey'). Found 
in abundance in suitable places. On the evening of March 26th 
several were put to flight from some tall oak trees fifteen miles 
north of Corpus Christi, where they had settled down for their 
night's rest. The next morning while riding over the prairies our 
dog flushed many from the tall grass. 

After being frightened from their roosts at night, they make 
for the open prairies; here they remain but a short time, as the wild 
animals, especially of the cat tribe, are a troublesome foe, continu- 
ally on the alert to capture them. 

From the many enemies of this bird, and the exposed situation 
of the nests, which are built on the open prairies, but a small aver- 
age ever attain the mature state. Facts collected from an old hunter 
seem to point to a gradual extermination of the species. 

30. Zenaidura macroura (Linn.). {Mourning Dove). On 
March 27th a nest of this bird with two eggs was taken about fif" 
teen miles northwest of Corpus Christi. The nest was mostly 
composed of twigs of the mesquite, and was placed about eight feet 
from the ground. The female flew off at our approach, and gave 
expression to her uncomfortable position by a series of coos. That 
evening we pitched our camp by the side of a river about twenty 
miles from Corpus Christi. We were partly enclosed by large oak 
and ebonv trees. Just after supper the whistling of the wings of 
the doves could be heard as they flew over our heads to alight on 
the side of the stream for a drink. In succession they came, some 
in pairs, while again single ones would come one after another, only 
to stop long enough for a drink, when they would disappear as mys- 
teriously as they came. This procession lasted until very late into 
the night, when, by degrees, it ceased. 

31. Cathartes aura (Linn.). {Turkey Vulture). Seen 
roaming over the country feeding on dead animals, etc. 

32. Catharista atrata (Bartr.). [Black Vulture). Scat- 
tered about the prairies are the remains of animals that perish from 
disease, etc. These remains mark the spots where the Vultures 
have made their gluttonous appetites of great service. Scarcely has 


the body of an animal become cold when the Vulture, which only 
a short time previous was out of the range of human vision, makes 
his appearance. Circling about for some time, they finally alight 
on the ground, at first at some distance from the animal, as if to in- 
vestigate and make sure that ail is right, at last one, more courage- 
ous than the rest, stealthily makes his way to the head and tears out 
the eye. I did not see them strip the skin from the animal. 

33. Elanoides forficatus (Linn.). (Swallow-tailed Kite). 
On March 26th a pair were seen flying north. These were the only 
ones seen. 

34. Circus hudsonius (Linn.). {Marsh Hawk). Many 
were seen migi'ating northwards. 

35. Accipiter velox (Wils.). [Sharp-shinned Hawk). 
Several were seen on the various trips taken. One was obtained 
April 7th. 

36. Aquila chrysaetos (Linn.). {Golden Eagle). Just 
across the reef north of Corpus Christi a nest of this bird was seen. 

It was conspicuously placed in the top of a large oak and was 
composed of large twigs loosely thrown together. 

37. Polyborus cheriway (Jacq.). [Audubon's Caracara). 
A set of the eggs of this bird was brought to me on April 15th. 
Specimens of the bird were not taken, although seen quite often. 

38. Megascops asio mccallii (Cass.). {Texan Screech 
Owl). Four miles west of Corpus Christi, March 26th, a female 
was taken off her nest, which contained two eggs of a dull white 
color. A peculiar accident happened to the eggs, which is, I think, 
worthy of note. In some way one of the eggs got cracked in the 
nest, thus letting out some of its contents. This albuminous sub- 
stance caused the other egg, which lay by the side of the broken 
one, to adhere to the parent bird's breast. Upon the removal of the 
bird from the nest, the egg hung on sufficiently long to reach the 
outside, when it dropped off and fell to the ground. The nest was 
built in a dead ebony tree about five feet from the ground. The 
male was also captured alive, and the pair made very interesting 
pets about my friend's house. 

39. Bubo virginianus (Gmel.). (Great Homed Owl). Com- 
mon in the timbered country north of Corpus Christi. A fine pair 
was obtained March 29th; these were undoubtedly migrants. They 
are much lighter in color than nort'hern specimens, which seems to 
be characteristic among the avian fauna in general in the South, es-> 
pecially of land birds of a tawny color. 


40. Geococcyx californianus (Less.). {Road-runner), 
On the first trips taken west of the city I did not observe a single 
specimen of this bird; later, however, and at more distant points 
among the chaparral, we came upon one or more leisurely strutting 
about on the ground at every turn. 

As soon as our appearance was known they made off, dodging 
in among the chaparral where it was almost impossible to trace 
them owing to the impenetrable nature of the bushes. On the 
morning of the 26th of Mai'ch, while pushing our way through the 
thick undergrowth, we came upon a bird in a cleared spot which 
was busily engaged in thrashing its bill against a large bone which 
laid partly buried in the ground. The cracking of the limbs as we 
pushed our way forward attracted its attention, and it sought safer 
quarters. An examination of the spot was made, and strewn about 
the ground near the bone were innumerable fragments of shells, 
the remains of the land snails which were caught near by and 
brought here to be broken open so that their contents might be de- 

Among the chaparral ranging from three to six feet from the 
ground were last year's nests, some of which were partly rebuilt. 
But one revealed eggs, this was situated about four feet from the 
ground in the centre of a chaparral bush. The bird remained upon 
the nest until we were within a few feet, when it slyly crept out on 
the opposite side, lingering for a few minutes on the ground near 
by. The nest contained seven eggs of an opaque white color. 
Contrary to the generality of sets each egg was perfectly fresh. 
Well developed embryos in the same nest with fresh eggs are more 
often found. 

41. Coccyzus americanus (Linn.). {Yellow-billed Cuckoo), 
A female with the nest and five eggs was taken April 23d. 

42. Ceryle cabanisi (Tschudi). {Texan Kingfisher). A 
specimen was observed on a telegraph wire across the reef from 
Corpus Chrtsti, March 26th. A shot from my gun knocked it from 
its footing, which it was unable to regain. It then flew to the dis- 
tant timber, where it was lost to view. 

43. Dryobates scalaris (Wagl.). {Texan Woodpecker). 
Several birds were seen April 2d. 

44. Melanerpes aurifrons (Wagl.). {Golden-fronted 
Woodpecker). On March 26th, a male and female were shot from 

a telegraph pole fifteen miles north of Corpus Christi. The pair 
were evidently building a nest, as one had material in its mouth 


which it carried to a hole on the south side of the pole about fifteen 
feet from the ground. This was one of the many pairs seen. 

45. Antrostomus vociferus (Wils.). ( Whip-poor-will). 
Several were seen in some dense woods about fifteen miles north of 
Corpus Christi, March 28th. A specimen was also taken April 7th, 
three miles west of the city. 

46. Nyctidromus albicollis (Gmel.). (Parauque). Two 
specimens brought me by a friend were shot in the Nueces River 
bottoms April 16th. 

47. Trochiluscolubris Linn. (Ruby-throated Humming- 
bird). This familiar little bird was noticed quite often sipping the 
nectar from the honey-suckles, which are cultivated by some as a 
garden plant. It was also observed several miles west of the city 
among low bushes and among the blossoms of the China trees in 
the city. 

48. Milvulus forficatus (Gmel.). (Scissor-tailed Fly- 
catcher). On the morning of March 18th, while conversing with 
a friend on one of the principal streets in the central part of the 
city, one of these birds flew over slightly higher than the city hall 
near by. The novel aspect the bird presented as it towered aloft; 
the streaming tail, looking like a string tied to its body, was a 
sight never to be forgotten. This was the first arrival. After this 
date they became more common and were seen as commonly as the 
Pewee of the East. A series of chattering notes were the only 
traces of music observed. These were uttered continually by both 
sexes while on the wing. 

The top branches of bushes and trees are their favorite resort; 
here they collect in little flocks, sometimes as many as eight or nine 
being seen together. From these branches they dart forth after 
such insects as may be passing. 

I have noticed them fly almost perpendicularly upwards for 
several yards. When they suddenly descend the peculiar forked 
tail and salmon-colored sides are conspicuously shown, the whole 
making a picture which few of the feathered tribe can surpass in 
point of elegance. 

A nest with five eggs and the female bird was secured on May 

49. Myiarchus crin,itus (Linn.). (Crested Flycatcher). 
Two specimens were secured March 21st, four miles west of the 
city, in some chaparral bushes. 

50. Sayornis saya (Bonap.). (Say's Phcebc). While driv- 


ing through some heavy chaparral on the afternoon of March 27th, 
one of these birds was seen living in the air after insects, a snap- 
ping sound being made with its bill while thus engaged. 

51. Otocoris alpestris giraudi Hensh. (Tex an Horned 
Lark). Found this species very common on the flats north of 
Corpus Christi. On May 27th a nest with four eggs was taken. 

52. Molothrus ater (Bodd.). (Cozubird). Common. 
Seen in flocks west of the city. Two other species were observed, 
but specimens for identification were not taken. 

53. Agelaius phoeniceus (Linn.). (Red-winged Black- 
bird). On March 21st several large flocks were seen west of the 
city. So numerous were they at this place that a single shot would 
have furnished more specimens that could have been taken care of. 

54. Sturnella magna (Linn.). (Meadow lark). This bird 
was found to be very abundant in fields. 

55. Sturnella magna neglecta (Aud.). ( Western Mea- 
dowlark). Had I known that this variety was found at Corpus 
Christi, especial attention would have been given to its habits. 
However, its identity was not known until after my arrival home. 

A male of this western variety taken on the flats just outside 
of the city limits, was shot from a flock. No difference of habits 
was noticed between this and the eastern form, excepting its song 
which appeared much shorter and more feeble in its utterance. 

56. Icterus spurius (Linn.). (Orchard Oriole). Common 
resident. The nests of this bird are much smaller here than in the 
more northern and eastern parts of its range. 

57. Icterus bullocki (Swains.). (Bullocks Oriole). A 
summer resident in suitable localities. A nest with five eggs was 
taken April 7th. 

58. Quiscalus macrourus Swains. (Great-tailed Grackle). 
Soon after my arrival, March 16th, the Great-tailed Grackle was 
very common in the city, inhabiting the China trees in the gardens* 
where their nests were scattered about among the top branches. 
Its notes could be heard from my window at almost any hour, but 
particularly in the early morning when they assemble in large 
flocks. To say the least, the notes are most displeasing in tone. 
The male birds at this season of the year strut about with a great 
deal of pride; they delight in straightening back their heads, in 
which operation the crown almost touches the back. They also 
swing the head back and forth with a dazed expression which 
reminds me of a domestic fowl hunting 1 for its roost in the dark 


While thus maneuvering they burst forth with their sharp, grating- 
notes, which have a near resemblance to the noise made by a gate 
swinging on rusty hinges. In the delivery of their song the throat 
swells to three times its ordinary size and it is seemingly with great 
effort that they burst forth, commencing with a shriek which breaks 
up 'into chattering notes. The noise as the wings and tail beat the 
air would stand comparison with that made by the pigeon. 

They use the same nest year after year, giving it each season 
what little repairing may be necessary. Two broods are commonly 
raised in a season. 

59. Poocetes gramineus confinis Baird. (Western Ves- 
per Sparrow). Quite common at Corpus Christi, where it is found 
in the open fields and among the prickly pear cactus. 

60. Ammodramus sandwichensis savanna (Wils.). [Sa- 
vanna Sparrow). Common at Corpus Christi. They are met 
with wherever suitable places of concealment abound. Most often 
found under prickly pear and in open chaparral, or where the two 

61. Ammodramus sandwichensis alaudinus ( Bonap.). 
( Western Savanna Sparrow). Found residing in about the same 
localities as the preceding species, but with more tendency to places 
where the vegetation was more scattered. 

62. Ammodramus savannarum perpallidus Ridgw. 
( Western Grasshopper Sparrow). In open fields or on the ground 
among stunted cacti this sparrow was seen quite often. On March 
1 8th, I noticed one of these birds on the ground under a large cac- 
tus, its peculiar docility aroused my attention and I shot it. On 
skinning it I found a parasite which had bored completely through 
its small intestine. This may have accounted for its unusual stupidity. 

63. Chondestes grammacus strigatus (Swains.). ( West- 
ern Lark Sparrow). Several specimens were taken March 27th 
about twenty miles north of Corpus Christi. All were in bright 

64. Spizella pallida (Swains.). [Clay-colored Sparrow). 
A number of these sparrows were seen March 24th two miles south- 
west of the city among a scattered growth of chaparral. 

65. Spizella pusilla (Wils.). (Field Sparrow). This bird 
was generally seen in scattered growths of cacti and chaparral. 

66. Melospiza lincolni (Aud.). (Lincoln's Sparrow). This 
bird was seen occasionally on every trip and was sometimes in com- 
pany with the White-crowned Sparrow. 


67. Cardinalis cardinalis (Linn.). {Cardinal). About 
the twenty-fifth of March the bulk of the migrants seemed to have 

While perched on the top branch of a bush the male gives out 
his notes, which seem in beautiful harmony with his beautiful plum- 
age. A little way off is the female; though less conspicuous in at- 
tire, its sharp chirp of alarm attracts your attention. 

Here and there among the chaparral the bright, vivid flash of 
the males could be seen. 

68. Passerina cyanea (Linn.). {Indigo Bunting). A few 
were seen during my stay. A male in bright plumage was shot 
two miles west of the city on April 7th. 

69. Piranga rubra (Linn.). {Summer Tanager). On the 
morning of April 7th a bright plumaged male was observed among 
the China trees in the yard surrounding the house. This was the 
only one seen, although I am told by a friend that it is a common 
resident in the river bottoms of Nueces County. 

70. Progne subis (Linn.). {Purple Martin). Besides that 
of the Great-tailed Grackle the Purple Martin's sallow whistle was 
about the only bird music I had to contend with during my long 
confinement. They are very common. 

71. Tachycineta bicolor (Vieill.). {Tree Swallow). A 
common summer resident at Corpus Christi. 

72. Clivicola riparia (Linn.). {Bank Swallow). Sev- 
eral flocks seen across the Bay from Corpus Christi. 

73. Ampelis cedrorum (Vieill.). {Cedar Waxwing). On 
the morning of March 26th, fifteen miles north of Corpus Christi, 
a Cedar bird was seen on the top branch of an oak tree a little dis- 
tance from our camp. Its wheezing note was the first thing to at- 
tract my attention. On May 22nd, the same familiar note was 
heard from my room in the city, my brother kindly identifying the 
specimen from my description, as I was unable myself to go to the 

74. Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides (Swains.). ( White- 
rumped Shrike). This bird was met with frequently. I have not 
observed it either devouring or in pursuit of other birds. 

75. Vireo olivaceus (Linn.). {Red-eyed Vireo). Met with 
occasionally in oak timber across the Bay from Corpus Christi. 

76. Vireo belli Aud. {BelPs Vireo). A male and female 
of this species, together with a nest containing three eggs and one 


of the Cowbird, was brought to me by my assistant, on May 28th. 
It was found on the bank of the Nueces River in dense under- 
growth, and was placed about four feet from the ground. 

77. Mniotilta varia (Linn.). [Black and White Creeper)' 
The first specimen of this bird, a male, was collected March 
2 1st, four miles west of the city. The black markings about the 
head and body are the most pronounced of any specimen seen. 

78. Helminthophila pinus (Linn.). [Blue-winged War- 
bler). A male secured April 7th on the bank of the Nueces River 
was the only one seen. 

79. Helminthophila celata (Say). [Orange- crowned 
Warbler). Several seen March 27th, several miles north of Cor- 
pus Christi in company with the Parula Warbler. The top 
branches of oak and ebony trees were their most frequent habitat. 

80. Compsothlypis Americana (Linn.). [Parula War- 
bler). While on the camping trip of March 27th I saw many of 
these birds in the upper branches of high trees. Associated with 
them were Blue-gi - ay Gnatcatchers and occasionally a Black-throated 
Green Warbler. 

81. Dendroica coronata (Linn.). [Myrtle Warbler). On 
the morning of March 26th quite a number passed through the 
yard adjoining the house where I was stopping. No more seen. 

S2. Dendroica dominica (Linn.). [Yellow-throated War- 
bler). The first of these birds was noticed March 17th, in some 
low growth of mesquite and prickly pear on the side of an em- 
bankment in the city. At first sight one is struck with the resem- 
blance which these birds bear to the Blackburnian Warbler, but on 
close inspection their identity is marked with habits peculiar to the 
bird. Between March 18th and 24th they appeared to be quite 
common, but after that date no specimens were seen. 

83. Dendroica virens (Gmel.). [Black-throated Green 
Warbler). On March iSth, while beating my way through the 
mesquite bushes south-west of the town, I came upon a pair of 
these pretty birds in search of insects, which were evidently 
attracted by the pleasant fragrance which the blossoms of the bushes 
afforded. Slowly and in a zigzag direction the birds moved on, 
keeping up their restless motion without a moment's cessation. No 
signs of fear were shown ouly when a misstep was taken, which, 
for the moment, would startle them. Small Hymenopterous insects 
were found in the stomachs of those taken. 

84. Geothlypis trichas (Linn.). [Maryland Yellow- 


throat). Several of these birds were met with among the weeds 
and undergrowth in the western part of the city, March 26th. 

85. Setophaga ruticilla (Linn.). [American Redstart). 
A few were seen March 26th, fifteen miles west of Corpus Christi. 
They were in dull plumage. No bright males were seen. 

86. Mimus polyglottos (Linn.). [Mockingbird'). On my 
arrival at Corpus Christi I was pleased to find the Mockingbird 
common. Its principal resort was among the chapparral, mesquite 
bushes, and brush fences which surrounded the Mexican farms on 
the western outskirts of the city. Many were seen in and about 
the town; they were also met with remote from human habitation. 

Seldom do the Mockingbirds build a new nest; they generally 
reconstruct the one which was used the previous year. It is quite 
remarkable that the nests, which are composed mostly of mesquite 
and chaparral twigs, are but little distorted or broken by the storms 
and remain quite well preserved the year around. Their durability 
is in part due to the toughness of the material used and to the spines 
which project from the twigs, making the nests almost indestructible. 

S7. Harporhynchus longirostris (Lafr.). [Long-billed 
Thrasher). The morning after my arrival at Galveston I observed 
a bird of this species in a China tree in the heart of the city. 

On March 21st two birds were seen about six miles west of 
Corpus Christi among the ebony trees. Their wary habits would 
not allow us to approach within gun shot. April 8th a male and 
female, together with the nest, which contained three eggs, were 
taken two miles west of the city. The nest was built a few feet 
from the ground in a chaparral bush. 

88. Thryothorus bewickii bairdi (Salv. & Godm.). 
[Baird^s Wren). While on a camping tour March 27th a male and 
a female of this species were taken. The incident relative to their 
capture I will quote from my note book : " While my assistant was 
engaged in the preparation of our dinner I busied myself taking 
a stroll to the oak timber which grew quite abundantly a few yards 
from the camp. On entering the woods the notes of the male were 
heard in the top branches of a tall oak just a little to the left of the 
spot in which I was standing. A faint chattering sound was first 
noticed, then it became louder and harsher until I traced its source 
to the top branches, where, almost concealed by the thick foliage, 
the bird's form could be seen while hopping from twig to twig. 
From this position the specimen was shot, and I had no sooner laid 
it in my basket than the same chattering note greeted my ears from 


the other side of the camp. A long and tiresome search among the 
thick foliage was rewarded by a second specimen — the female." 
The notes uttered by these birds were evidently notes of alarm, for 
its real song is not unlike that of the Song Sparrow. A nest with 
six eggs was taken April 19th. 

89. Troglodytes aedon parkmanii (Aud .). (Parkman's 
Wreti). Many were seen in the brush heaps near Mexican farms. 

90. Regulus calendula (Linn.). [Ruby-crowned King- 
let). Only two of these birds were noticed during my stay. One 
was taken March 26th sixteen miles north of the city ; the other 
was seen in the city March 25th. 

91. Polioptila c.erulea (Linn.). Blue-gray Gnatcher). 
A number of these birds were taken March 21st in mesquite bushes 
four miles west of the city. So numerous were they that I could 
scarcely look around without seeing the ends of the limbs borne 
down by the weight of their tiny bodies. The birds met with on 
this occasion seem to have been the bulk of a migratory flock, for, 
on visiting the locality several days later not a single specimen 
could be seen. 





In Mr. Ridgway's Catalogue of North American Birds, 1881, 
page 63, is this paragraph: 

" Mr. H. K. Coale, of Chicago, 111., has lately called my at- 
tention to certain differences between eastern (typical) and western 
specimens of this species, which, upon examination of a large series, 
I find to be quite constant and sufficiently appreciable to warrant 
the recognition of a western race. Western birds being exactly 
like those from Mexico in those points in which they differ from 
eastern specimens. Swainson's name strigaius (C/iondestes striga- 
tus, Philos. Jour. i. 1S27, 435), based upon the Mexican bird, is 
available for the western and southern race." 

On page 2S9 Swainson's Classification of Birds, 1S36, we 
find his definition of the genus 

Chondestes Sw. Larkfinch. Fig. 263. 
" Bill resembling Passerella, but the tip slightly inflexed and 
notched; the commissure considerably sinuated, and lobed in the 
middle. Wings lengthened, rather pointed ; the three first quills 
nearly equal. Tail much rounded : the feathers broad, and the 
three outer graduated. Feet moderate. Hinder toe and claw 
much longer than the lateral toes, which are equal." 

Dr. Coues does not admit the validity of the sub-species. Nat- 
urally opposed to varieties he has perhaps not taken pains to inquire 
into the matter. 

With the material at hand*, I think you may soon be convinced 
that C. grammacus and C. grammacus strigatus are distinct. 

Taking the Missouri River as the dividing line we find that 
birds from the west are larger, brighter about the head, and lighter 
above and below than those from the East — Ohio, Indiana and 

* Mr. Ridgway and Mr. Morcom kindly loaned me their specimens for examination. 

























3-3 2 









3- 2 5 








3- 2 5 







3-5 2 

3- J 7 


•5 2 


The following measurments are taken from five specimens of 
each : 

Chondestes grammacus 
$ Chicago, H. K. Coale, 
? St. Clair Co., 111., H. K. Coale, . 

Independence, Mo., J. G. Cooper, 
$ Columbus, O., H. W. Henshaw, . 
$ Sioux City, Iowa, J. Feilusen, . 

Average, ..... 

Chondestes grammacus strigatus 
$ LaPaz, Cala., L. Belding, . 
$ Tucson, Ariz., E. W. Nelson, 
$ Corpus Christi, Tex., G. F. Morcom, 
5 Marysville, Cala., C. H. Townsend, 
Clear Creek, Col., H. K. Coale, 

The above measurments, which are given in inches and hun- 
dredths, show the wing of the western birds to be twenty one- 
hundredths of an inch longer than that of the eastern, and that the 
tail is twenty-five one-hundredths of an inch longer. The bills of 
the western birds are also a trifle longer than those of the eastern, 
while I have been unable to detect any difference in the length of 
the tarsi. 

In grammacus the top of the head, back and middle tail feath- 
ers are very dark. The back is thickly mottled with black. 

Strigatus is washed above with light brown, with narrow 
blackish-brown streaks. The markings on the head also differ. An 
Illinois $ shows a black stripe .37 of an inch long back of the eye, 
which is wanting in $ from Arizona and California, and is nearly 
constant in the others. Young birds from Illinois and Utah show 
the same variation. 

The genus is much more common West than East of the Mis- 
souri River. This may be partially accounted for by the fact that 
in Missouri and Southern Illinois, as well as some other localities, 
the farmers put paris-green on the plants to kill the potato-bugs, 
which, in this part of the country at least, form a large item of their 
food. In this way a large number of the birds are annually 



The writer's excuse for presenting this list is the circumstance 
that it pertains to a locality which has yielded to careful, though 
by no means protracted, exploration a decidedly large number of 
species of birds (about 2S0, including subspecies), than has been re- 
corded for any other equal area in North America, and the excep- 
tionally large number of species (85) which have been found breed- 
ing within the corporate limits of a moderately compact town 
within the area in question. 

Large, however, as this number may appear in comparison 
with records for other places, it is believed that many localities in 
the Mississippi Valley presenting an equal variety of attractions for 
birds will be found no less favored.* 

The town of Mount Carmel is situated upon a prominent bluff, 
the highest part of which is said to be 140 feet above low-water 
level of the Wabash River, and distant about a third, or perhaps 
half a mile from the river itself, here 1,000 to 1,200 feet wide. The 
river makes a bold sweep around two sides of the town, flowing 
past the eastern, southeastern and southern portions, and the outline 
of the bluff, upon which the town is built, conforms strictly to the 
curve of the river. 

The land between the town and the river was originally cov- 
ered with heavy forest, but more than half a century having elapsed 
since the forest was felled, its place is now occupied by an open 
common, carpeted with the richest sward of blue-grass and white 
clover, beautifully relieved here and there by mirror-like ponds and 
scattered clumps of trees, the latter mostly a second growth of 
honey locust, black and sweet gum, persimmon, black walnut, syca- 

*Cf. "The Lower Wabash Valley, considered in its relation to the Faunal Districts of the 
Eastern Region of North America; with a Synopsis of its Avian Fauna," in Proc. Boston 
Soc. Nat. Hist. XVI. 1S74, pp. 304-332; also, several papers, by E. W. Nelson and the writer 
in Bull. Nutt. Orn. CI '.,b ,' American NaturaliU / Bull. Essex In-t.; etc. 


more, Michaux's oak and white elm, some of the latter being quite 
large and of the graceful dome-shaped type. Many of these trees, 
especially the smaller ones, are densely canopied by wild grape 
vines. This open pasture land is divided into what are locally 
termed the "upper" and "lower commons," by an exceedingly 
crooked natural ditch known as " the slough," cut deeply into the 
earth, or down to low-water level of the river, here more than 
twenty feet below the general surface. 

A portion of this so-called slough is almost beneath one's feet 
when observed from the gracefully rounded, though steep, front of 
the bluff, and from the same point of view may be seen the broad 
mouth of White River, gleaming between the solid walls of forest, 
which, standing flush with the bank, lines almost continuously the 
opposite shore; while about a mile below, the Patoka, a much 
smaller stream, enters the Wabash. 

The Illinois shore is irregularly fringed with trees, some of 
them good-sized elms, cottonwoods, sycamores, and silver maples, 
while among them stand ware-houses, saw-mills, and other belong- 
ings of a river town. 

The " commons " are succeeded both above and below by cul- 
tivated fields, and these in turn by woods, which a comparatively 
few years ago were in an almost primitive condition, but which of 
late years have been much thinned out by the clearing of consider- 
able areas and the destruction for saw-logs of the best trees upon 
the remaining portions. On the opposite side of the town, meadows 
of grass or clover, and fields of wheat or corn alternate with open 
groves and bits of enclosed woodland, consisting (as does the sylva 
of the entire country) of various hard-woods; while the town itself 
is embowered in a wealth of foliage — orchards and shade trees, 
with gardens and shrubbery in profusion. 

Within the town limits were formerly several small, though 
secluded marshes, in which dwelt various water birds and other 
species affecting such localities, but these, with one or two excep- 
tions, have since been drained. 

The total number of species positively identified to date as 
found at one time or another within one mile of the center of the 
town is 281, some of them being, as a matter of course, rare, irreg- 
ular, or even accidental in their occurrence. Of this number 73 
species are transient, passing through in Spring and Fall; 74 are 
permanent residents, or may occur at any season of the year; S6 
appear only in Summer, while 4S are present only in Winter. The 


total number ascertained to breed within the same ai'ea is about 140, 
of which, no less than 84 have been positively identified as breeding 
within the town limits, which are three square miles in extent. The 
following is a complete list: 

1. Ardea virescens Linn. [Green Heron). Nesting in 
one or two localities within the town limits. 

2. Rallus elegans Aud. [King- Rail). Breeding in at 
least two localities within the town, one of these places was some 
years since obliterated by drainage. In this place, not more than 
half a mile from the court house, a nest containing eleven eggs was 

3. Porzana Carolina (Linn.). [Sora Rail). Observed 
during the breeding season and probably nests in the few suitable 

4. Philohela minor (Gmel.). [American Woodcock). Rare, 
but found in a few suitable places. 

5. Totanus solitarius (Wils.). [Solitary Sandpiper). 
Common and undoubtedly breeding. 

6. Actitis macularia (Linn.). [Spotted Sandpiper). Com- 
mon, but confined chiefly to the river bank. 

7. ^Egialitis vocifera (Linn.). [Killdeer). Not uncom- 
mon where suitable localities occur. 

8. Colinus virginianus (Linn.). [Bob-white). Common 
in outlots. 

9. Zenaidura macroura (Linn.). [Mourning- Dove). 
Common everywhere. 

10. Coccyzus americanus (Linn.). [Yellow-billed Cuckoo). 
Rather common in orchards. 

11. Coccyzus erythrophthalmus (Wils.). [Black-billed 
Cuckoo). Much less numerous than the preceding, but usually 
found with it. On one occasion a nest, with eggs, of each of these 
species was found uj3on adjoining trees in an orchard. 

12. Ceryle alcyon (Linn.). [Belted Kingfisher). Com- 
mon along the river bank, and also nesting in the " dug road " 
along with the Bank Swallows. 

13. Dryobates villosus (Linn.). [Hairy Woodpecker). 
Rare, but occasionally found breeding in orchards and elsewhere. 

14. Dryobates pubescens (Linn.). [Downy Woodpecker), 
The same remarks apply to this as to its larger cousin. 

15. Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Linn.). [Red-headed 
Woodpecker). Much the most numerous species of the family. In 


Summertime these frolicsome birds frequent the spire of a church 
in the center of the town, and amuse themselves by tapping on the 
tin globes of the weather vane. 

16. Melanerpes carolinus (Linn.). {.Red-bellied Wood- 
pecker). Common, though seldom breeding far within the town. 

17. Colaptes auratus (Linn.). {Flicker). Common. One 
nest found in an orchard not far from the court house. 

18. Antrostomus carolinensis (Gmel.). {Chuck-wilFs- 
widow). Very rare in woods just within the town limits. 

19. Antrostomus vociferus (Wils.). ( Whip-poor-will). 
The same remarks apply to this as to the preceding. Both are com- 
mon further from the town. 

20. Chordeiles virginianus (Gmel.). {Night hawk). Rare 
within the town limits. 

21. Ch^etura pelagica (Linn.). {Chimney Swift). Per- 
haps the most numerous of all the birds of the neighborhood. 

22. Trochilus colubris Linn. {Rttby-throated Humming- 
bird). Common. 

23. Tyrannus tyrannus (Linn.). {Kingbird). Common 
in orchards, but partial to isolated cottonwood or sycamore trees. 

24. Myiarchus crinitus (Linn.). {Crested Flycatcher). 
Rather rare in the town, but several pairs nest in hollow apple trees 
or in Martin boxes. One pair nested for one or more seasons in a 
window of the jail, the nest being placed behind the iron bars of 
the window. 

25. Sayornis phcebe (Lath.). {Phoebe). Common. 

26. Contopus virens (Linn.). ( Wood Pewee). Common. 
Nesting occasionally in orchards, but usually in large shade trees. 

27. Empidonax acadicus (Gmel.). {Acadian Flycatcher). 
Rather common in suitable localities (thickets or under woods along 
the water courses). 

28. Empidonax pusillus traillii (Aud.). {TrailPs Fly- 
catcher). More rare than the preceding, but found in much the 
same localities. 

29. Otocoris alpestris praticola Hensh. {Prairie 
Horned Lark). Common, chiefly confined to open pasture ground. 

30. Cyanoc'itta cristata (Linn.). {Blue Jay). Abun- 
dant. Nesting in shade trees along the principal street and in 
orchards throughout the town. 

31. Molothrus ater (Bodd.). {Cowbird). Common. 


32. Agelaius phceniceus (Linn.). (Red-winged Blackbird). 
Abundant in suitable places. 

33. Sturnella magna (Linn.). (Meadow I ark). Abundant. 

34. Icterus spurius (Linn.). (Orchard Oriole). More 
numerous than the Baltimore, but almost entirely confined, as its 
name indicates, to apple orchards. 

35. Icterus galbula (Linn.). (Baltimore Oriole). Com- 

36. Quiscalus quiscula ^eneus (Ridgw.). (Bronzed 
Grackle). Abundant, but most of their former breeding places 
(large elm trees containing cavities) are now destroyed. 

37. Spinus tristis (Linn.). (American Goldfinch). Breed- 
! ng sparingly in small trees, especially along the roadside in out- 
skirts of the town. 

38. Pooc^etes gramineus (Gmel.). ( Vesper Sparrow). 
Less rare than the following, though still by no means common. 

39. Ammodramus sandwichensis savanna (Wils.). (Sa- 
vanna Sparraw). Very rare in summer. Two or three have been 
positively identified. Nests found in damp meadows. 

40. Ammodramus savannarum passerinus (Wils.). 
(Grasshopper Sparrozv). Abundant in dry meadows. 

4 1 . Ammodramus henslowii (Aud.). (Henslow 's Sparrow). 
Common in damjo, weedy meadows. 

42. Chondestes grammacus (Say). (Lark Sparrow). 
Abundant in the outlots. 

43. Spizella socialis (Wils.). (Chipping Sparrow). 
Abundant everywhere. 

44. Spizella pusilla (Wils.). (Field Sparrow). Abun- 
dant in bushy places in the outskirts. 

45. Peuc^ea aestivalis bachmanii (Aud.). (Bachman's 
Sparrow). Rather rare and confined to a few particular localities, 
but originally discovered and undoubtedly breeding within the town 

46. Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Linn.). (Towhee). Com- 
mon in bushy places in the outskirts. 

47. Cardinalis cardinalis (Linn.). (Cardinal). Com- 
mon in all suitable places. Several pairs breeding in cedar trees in 
the middle of the town. 

48. Passerina cyanea (Linn.). (Indigo Bunting). Abun- 
dant in suitable places. 

49. Spiza Americana (Gmel.). (Dickcissel). Probably the 


most abundant of all the Fringillidce Found in all meadows, but 
particularly partial to clover fields. 

50. Piranga erythromelas Vieill. {Scarlet Tanager). 
Much less common than P. rubra during the breeding season. Also 
more partial to damp woods in creek bottoms, etc. 

51. Piranga rubra (Linn.). {Summer Tanager). Common 
in oak groves. 

52. Progne subis (Linn.). {Purple Martin). Abundant. 
One resident of the town regarded these birds with so much favor 
as to provide numerous boxes for their accommodation. His hospi- 
tality was availed of by a colony of several dozen pairs, who, in 
return, undoubtedly did much service in lessening the number of 
insect pests about his premises. 

53. Petrochelidon lunifrons (Say). (Cliff' Swallow). 
A large colony of this species at one time built their nests under- 
neath the eaves of the Presbyterian Church, and, on another occa- 
sion, under those of an old barn in the middle of the town. 

Persecution resulting from the peculiar instincts of the num- 
erous " small boy," however (the writer among the number), inter- 
fered sadly with their domestic affairs; yet, with remarkable per- 
sistence, they rebuilt their nests as fast as they were demolished, and 
thus, under trying circumstances, succeeded in rearing a numerous 
progeny. Colonies have also been observed about barns in the 

54. Chelidox erythrogaster (Bodd.). {Bam Swallow). 
Single pairs nest in various old barns and unused stables. 

55. Tachycineta bicolor (Vieill.). {Tree Swallow). 
Nested in holes of several dead-topped elms which formerly grew 
upon the banks of the " slough " near the foot of the bluff. For- 
merly bred very numerously in deserted woodpeckers' holes in dead 
snags and stumps near the dam. 

56. Clivicola riparia (Linn.). (Bank Swallow). Nest- 
ing in holes in the sandy banks of a graded street, known as the 
"dug road," in company with the Rough-winged Swallow and 
Kingfisher; also in various other localities within the town limits. 

57. Stelgidopteryx serripennis (Aud.). {Rough-winged 
Swallow). Much more numerous than the preceding, but usually 
found in company with it, or in similar localities in colonies by 
themselves. All nests of this species which I have found at Mt. 
Carmel, were in holes in banks, though I have no doubt that they 
there sometimes deviate from this their usual custom. 


58. Ampelis cedrorum (Vieill.). [Cedar Waxwing). Very 
scarce in summer, but young not long from the nest have been 

59. Lanius ludovicianus Linn. [Loggerhead Shrike). 
Common. Man}' nests found in orchards, but many more in the 
smaller honey locust [Gleditschia triacanthos) trees on the com- 
mons and along roadsides, the trunks and branches of these trees 
being densely armed with frightful thorns, rendering access to the 
nests by climbing an impossibility. 

60. Vireo olivaceus (Linn.). {Red-eyed Vired). Breed- 
ing sparingly in groves and other woods in the outskirts. 

61. Vireo gilvus (Vieill.). [Warbling Vired). Not rare 
among shade trees throughout the town. 

62. Vireo noveboracensis (Gmel.). [White-eyed Vireo). 
Common in the hazel thickets and brier-patches in the outskirts. 

63. Protonotaria citrea (Bodd.). [Prothonotary War- 
bler). A few nests of this species have been found in the vicinity 
of ponds (the then existing woods having since been cleared) be 
tween the town and the river. 

64. Helminthophila pinus (Linn.). [Blue-winged War- 
bler). The first nest I ever found of this species, and the first of 
which there is any authentic record, was found in the bushy and 
partly cleared corner of a field well inside the town. 

65. Dendroica .estiva (Gmel.). [Tellow Warbler). One 
of the most abundant species, especially in orchards. 

66. Dendroica c-erulea (Wils.). [Cerulean Warbler). 
Breeding within the town limits in low wooded places, being abun- 
dant in woods of bottom lands along the river. 

67. Dendroica dominica albilora Baird. [Sycamore 
Warbler). Rather common in trees along the river bank. 

68. Seiurus aurocapillus (Linn.). [Oven-bird). Com- 
mon in the groves in the outskirts. 

69. Seiurus motacilla ( Vieill. ). ( Louisiana Water- 
Thrush). Always to be found in certain suitable localities. 

70. Geothlypis Formosa (Wils.). [Kentucky Warbler). 
Common in all damp, rich woods. 

71. Geothlypis trichas (Linn.). [Maryland Yellow- 
throat). Found wherever there are brier-patches or other localities 
suited to its habits. 

72. Icteria virens (Linn.), [ Tellow -breasted Chat). 


Found in the same localities as the Field Sparrow, Indigo Bunting, 
Maryland Yellow-throat and White-eyed Vireo. 

73. Setophaga ruticilla (Linn.). [American Redstart). 
Breeding sparingly in groves and other woods in the outskirts. 

74. Mimus polyglottos (Linn.). [Mockingbird). Rare- 
One or two pairs breed within the town limits nearly every season. 

75. Galeoscoptes carolinensis ( Linn. ). ( Catbird ). 
Abundant in orchards and door yards. One of the most numerous 

76. Harporhynchus rufus (Linn.). [Brown Thrasher). 
Common in outskirts and occasional in orchards. 

77. Thryothorus ludovicianus (Lath.). [Carolina Wren). 
A few pairs breed every Summer in the town, but the principal 
haunts of the species are the woods, especially in bottom lands. 

78. Thryothorus bewickii (Aud.). [Bexvicfrs Wren). 
Abundant. Nesting about almost every habitation in the town. 
I do not remember having ever seen a specimen of this species out- 
side of the town, except in a few instances where a pair had taken 
up their abode about the stable or other out buildings of some farm 

79. Sitta carolinensis Lath. ( White-breasted Nuthatch). 
Rather rare during the breeding season, only one nest having been 
found within the corporation limits. 

80. Parus bicolor (Linn.). [Tufted Titmottse). Common 
in orchards and groves. 

81. Parus carolinensis Aud. [Carolina Chickadee} 
Common about the outskirts of the town but more rare in orchards 
within the town limits. 

82. Polioptila c^erulea (Linn.). [Blue-gray Gnat- 
catcher). Several nests found within the town limits, but only in 
the outskirts in oak trees. 

83. Turdus mustelinus Gmel. ( Wood Thrush). Com- 
mon in damp woods. 

84. Merula migratoria (Linn.). [American Robin). One 
or two pairs in nearly every orchai"d, also in shade trees and in 
large elms on the outskirts of the town. 

85. Sialia sialis (Linn.). [Bluebird). Common, nesting 
in hollows of apple or shade trees, about houses, etc. 

In this connection a comparison with a locality of nearly cor- 
responding latitude on the Atlantic coast — Washington, D. C, — 
may be of interest. 



The number of species found breeding in Mt. Carmel, but not 
in Washington, or immediate vicinity, is fourteen, as follows: 

1. Thryothorus bewickii (Aud.). (Bewick's Wren). 

2. Protonotaria citrea (Bodd.). (Prothonotary War- 

3. Dendroica c^erulea (Wils.). (Cerulean Warbler). 

4. Dendroica dominica albilora Baird. (Sycamore 

5. Lanius ludovicianus Linn. (Loggerhead Shrike). 

6. Ammodramus sandnichensis savanna (Wils.). (Sa- 
vanna Sparrow). 

7. Chondestes grammacus (Say). (Lark Sparrow). 

8. Peuc^ea aestivalis bachmanii (Aud.). Bachman's 

9. Quiscalus quiscula ^eneus ( Ridgw. ). (Bronzed 

10. Octocoris alpestris practicola Hensh. (Prairie 

11. Empidonax pusillus traillii (Aud.). (TrailVs Fly- 

12. Antrostomus carolinensis (Gmel.). (Chuck-wilPs- 

13. Rallus elegans Aud. (King Rail). 

14. Porzana Carolina (Linn.). (Sora Rail). 

The species which have been ascertained to breed in the vicin- 
ity of Washington, D. C, but not at Mt. Carmel are only seven in 
number, being the following: 

1. Troglodytes aedon Vieill. (House Wren).* 

2. Dendroica discolor (Vieill.). (Prairie Warbler)* 

3. Melospiza fasciata (Gmel.). (Song Sparrow). 

4. Guiraca CiERULEA (Linn.). (Blue Grosbeak).* 

5. Quicalus quiscula (Linn.). (Purple Grackle). 

6. Corvus ossifragus Wils. (Fish Crow). 

7. Strix pratincola Bonap. (Barn Qivl)* 

By extending the boundaries of Mt. Carmel, however, so as to 
take in an equal area of the circumjacent country as has been done 
in the case of Washington, the preponderance in favor of the former 
locality would be still greater, since the following would require to 
be added to the fourteen species named above: 

♦These will undoubtedly yet be found breeding near Mt. Carmel. 


15. Helinaia swainsonii Aud. {Swainson's Warbler). 

16. Compsothlypis Americana (Linn.). {Partda War- . 

17. Sylvania mitrata (Gmel.). {Hooded Warbler). 

18. Ceophlceus pileatus (Linn.). {Pileated Woodpecker). 

19. Falco peregrinus anatum (Bonap.). {Duck Hawk). 

20. Ictinia mississippiensis (Wils.). {Mississippi Kite). 

21. Catharista atrata (Bartr.). {Black Vulture). 

22. Nycticorax nycticorax njevius (Bodd.). {Black- 
crowned Night Heron). 

23. Nycticorax violaceus (Linn.). {Fellow-crowned Night 

24. Ardea herodias Linn. Great Blue Heron. 

25. Porzana noveboracensis (Gmel.). {Tellow Rail). 

26. Porzana jamaicensis (Gmel.). {Black Rail). 

27. Lophodytescucullatus (Linn.). {Hooded Merganser). 

28. Phalacrocorax dilophus floridanus (Aud.). {Flor- 
ida Cormorant. 

29. Podilymbus podiceps (Linn.). {Pied-billed Grebe). 

It may be added that when the vicinity of Mt. Carmel shall 
have been as thoroughly investigated as have the environs of Wash- 
ington, the number of species found breeding there will be consid- 
erably increased. As the enumeration stands, however, the differ- 
ence is as follows: 

Number of species breeding in the vicinity of Mt. Carmel, 
111., 122. 

Number of species breeding in the vicinity of Washington, 
D. C, 106. 



The material on which the present paper is based, was obtained 
during a three months' collecting trip made by Mr. F. Stephens 
(for the writer), in the Spring and early Summer of 1886. 

Mr. Stephens was instructed to make the object of the expe- 
dition, not so much the accumulation of specimens, as of facts regard- 
ing the habits of the birds observed. The results are given in his 
own words: 

It will be necessary to a thorough understanding of the follow- 
ing notes, for me to call your attention to the general topography 
of that section of the country in which my collecting was done. 

My first collecting was done in the Cohuilla Valley between 
April 1st and 19th. I was encamped at a locality known for many 
years as " Agua Caliente," but there are other springs, even in the 
same county (San Diego), known by the same name. This place 
has been lately called " Palm City " (a town-site having been laid 
out by speculators), but the name is not, nor is it likely to become, 
widely known. 

The term " Colorado Desert " is correct enough, but the Desert 
includes too much country for that term to give any definite idea 
of my locality, which was more than one hundred miles from the 
Colorado River, which river may be called the eastern limit of the 

The south-western part, in which I was located, is inhabited 
by the Cohuilla Indians, hence the name of the valley. There is 
also a small valley of the same name in the mountains near by, but 
it is only known locally. What is here called the Cohuilla Valley 
is the narrow part of the Desert beginning at the San Gorgonio 
Pass and ending at the Indian village of Toros, which is about forty 
miles E. S. E. from San Gorgonio Pass. The valley is from five 
to ten miles wide and is a dry, sandy desert, barren — except for the 
cacti, larrea bushes, etc., — save around the warm springs and at the 
mouths of the canons where a stream of water may flow for a few 
weeks in the spring. 

At the west end San Jacinto Peak rises abruptly from the plain 


to an altitude of over 9,000 feet. At the summit of this peak snow 
may be found all the year, while at the warm springs, less than ten 
miles away, snow is hardly seen once in a century. In fact, I know 
of no place where stronger climatic contrasts occur. The altitude 
of the springs is about 100 feet, but a considerable portion of the 
valley is below the sea-level. 

From April 20th to 23d I collected near Banning, a town near 
the upper part of San Gorgonio Pass. It is on the eastern edge of 
a grain-growing country and its altitude is about 2,500 feet. To 
the North and South the hills are covered with a thick growth of 
low bushes, leaving between them a plain, or valley, some two 
miles wide. The road between Banning and San Bernardino passes 
through grain fields to the top of the Pass, (Here is the town of 
San Gorgonio, altitude 2,900 feet), thence through the San Mateo 

I expected to do a month's work near Yuma, Arizona, but, 
owing to a freshet in the Colorado River, which overflowed the 
bottom lands, I had to be content with half that time, being there 
from May 3d to 15th only. 

Yuma is on the Colorado River and is in the midst of a desert 
country, barring, of course, the ever present cacti. The mesquite in 
this country is but a scraggy tree, willows are plenty along the 
river, but are mostly small saplings growing very thickly. There 
are also a few cotton woods. 

From Yuma I went to the mountains about ten miles north of 
the Southern Pacific R. R. station of San Gorgonio and at an alti- 
tude of 4,500 feet; here I stayed from May 25th to 31st. 

The immediate vicinity is well timbered with sycamores and 
live oaks, with here and there a fir, while only a little higher up 
the mountain sides is the pine belt. About a mile away and at an 
altitude of not more than 6,500 feet, snow was seen in a few places 
in the deep gulches (May 28th). 

From San Bernardino to Bear Valley, where I collected from 
June 7th to 28th, the road passes through the Cajon Pass, thence 
across the Mojave Desert to Rabbit Springs, while a little further 
along you strike into the mountains. At Cajon Pass I stopped 
three days (June 3rd and 4th and July 1st). 

Bear Valley is an elevated plateau two or three miles wide by 
fifteen long and is at an altitude of from 7,000 to 8,000 feet. It is 
surrounded by mountains from 500 to 1,000 feet highei - , and is well 
timbered with pine except through the center, which is more or 


less of a grassy plain. Here also are two bodies of water, the 
upper, called Bear Lake, is about a square mile in extent and is 
formed by the melting of the Winter's snowfall, which is usually 
very heavy. In dry years the Lake nearly disappears. 

The lower body of water is artificial, an irrigating company 
having built a fine stone dam across the outlet of the valley, form- 
ing what is known as the Bear Valley Reservoir, which now cov- 
ers some two thousand acres. 

This valley is separated from San Bernardino and Grayback 
Peaks by a lower, broken, heavily timbered region, in which are 
the headwaters of the Santa Ana River. It is inaccessible by 
wagon, and the few trails are rough and steep. 

The view south and south-east from the ridge south of Bear 
Valley is very fine; below lies a trough-like depression, some ten 
miles wide in front, widening and rising toward the east and nearly 
closed at the lower end by spurs from the mountain ranges on 
either side. Its lower (central) part is 4000 to 5000 feet lower. 
Throughout it is a massive, dark-green, coniferous forest, with here 
and there an extensive patch of chaparral on the southern exposure. 

In the south, some ten miles distant, is San Bernardino Peak, 
which, as seen from the San Bernardino Valley, is only a peak, but 
from here it is seen to be a range of mountains of nearly equal 
height and nearly twenty miles long, finally culminating in Gray- 
back Peak, which has an altitude of 11,300 feet. The whole crest 
of the range for a mile from the summit was an almost unbroken 
field of snow in June, 18S6. 

1. Colymbus nigricollis californicus (Heerm). [Amer- 
ican Eared Grebe). Not uncommon on the lakes in Bear Valley. 
I think there are two species of grebes here, but was unable to 
positively identify but this one. They breed in June. 

2. Anas boschas Linn. {Mallard). Saw several on the 
lakes in Bear Valley, where they breed. 

3. Anas cyanoptera Vieill. {Cinnamon leal). A pair 
of these birds was obtained in Cohuilla Valley ; they were the only 
ones seen here. The species should occur commonly during the 
migrations. At Bear Valley I found them not uncommon. They 
breed along the coast. 

4. Aythya Americana (Eyt.). (Redhead). Saw one pair 
on the lake in Bear Valley June 13th. 

5. Erismatura rubida ( Wils.) (Ruddy Duck). Common 
on the lakes in Bear Valley. They breed in June. 


6. Plegadis guarauna (Linn). ( White-faced Glossy Ibis.) 
This bird is not particularly rare in this section of the country, being 
found near streams and ponds. One was taken in Cohuilla Valley 
April 1 2th. Iris dull, dark-red. 

May 3rd a flock came about the sloughs on the Gila River 
above Yuma. They were so wild that I could not get near them, 
and I at last tried a very long shot across a slough, fortunately 
winging one. As they were flying about I heard an occasional 
harsh, heron-like note. The ovaries of the one shot were greatly 

7. Tantalus loculator Linn. ( Wood Ibis). This species 
occurs as a straggler in the San Bernardino Valley in Summer. 
Only one noted, that at Yuma, May 3rd. 

8. Rallus virginianus Linn. ( Virginia Rail) This 
is not a common bird in this part of the country. Only one was 
noticed; Cohuilla Valley April 5th. 

9. Porzana Carolina (Linn.). (Sora). This species oc- 
casionally stops at the ponds in Cohuilla Valley during the migra- 
tions. One was taken April 3rd, another was seen in Bear Valley 
June 13th. 

10. Fulica Americana Gmel. (American Coot). They 
breed abundantly on the lakes in the Bear Valley. I found one 
nest containing twenty-two eggs, it was probably a community 

The nests are generally built of dead rushes, etc., and are 
placed on tufts of grass growing in the water or on masses of drift- 
wood near the water's edge. 

11. Gallinago delicata (Ord.). (Wilson's Snipe). Rare. 
A $ of this species shot in Cohuilla Valley, Api'il 2nd, is the only 
one noted. 

12. yEdALiTis vocifera (Linn.). (Killdeer). Common 

13. Oreortyx pictus plumiferus (Gould). (Plumed Par- 
tridge). One was shot near San Gorgonio May 28th. They were 
not uncommon in Bear Valley, where several were taken. Young 
were seen on June 22nd. 

14. Callipepla californica vallicola Ridgw. ( Valley 
Partridge). Not common in the Cohuilla Valley. A $ taken 
April 17th, contained eggs ready to be laid. Their stomachs were 
well filled mostly with caterpillars, but also contained a few seeds. 

15. Callipepla gambeli (Nutt). (GambeVs Partridge). 


This species is not uncommon in the Cohuilla Valley, and at Yuma 
I found them quite common. On the nth of May, a young Indian 
brought about five dozen of them into Yuma, he had snared them 
alive, and I got a selected dozen of them for one dollar. Does not 
occur at San Bernardino or Bear Valley. 

16. Melopelia leucoptera (Linn.). {White-xvinged Dove). 
Only two seen, these at Yuma May 15th. They were flying 
rapidly and crossed the Colorado River. Does not occur west of 
the Colorado Valley. 

17. Pseudogryphus californianus (Shaw). [California 
Vulture). At Banning, on April 22nd, while engaged in skinning 

birds I heard the croaking of approaching Ravens-, and, looking 
up I saw two, pestering what I thought was a Golden Eagle. 
Snatching my rifle, I fired as they passed at a distance of about 150 
yards with no other effect than to frighten off the Ravens. 

As the other bird resumed its flight I saw to my astonishment, 
that it was a small California Vulture. I slipped in another car- 
tridge and fired again, but with no better success than at first. 
There was no white about the tail nor under the wings, but the 
front edge of the wing, from the shoulder to the carpus, had a nar- 
row edging of white. The head was very pale, almost white 
apparently. The extent of wings was not over seven feet I think. 
It was most probably a young bird not nearly grown. 

June 7th, while in Bear Valley, I saw another, this was also 
an immature bird. On June 8th, I saw another passing over; this 
one was flying very straight and high, presently three more ap- 
peared in the wake of the first, those, in turn, being followed by a 
train of Turkey Buzzards (Cat/iartes aura). 

Two more were seen in this locality June 15th. They passed 
over at an elevation of 800 or 1000 feet. I fired at them with the 
rifle, but ineffectually. 

iS. Cathartes aura (Linn.). (7\trkey Buzzard). Some 
seen in Bear Valley, June 8th. Common. 

19. Accipiter cooperi (Bonap.). (Coopers Hawk). Three 
seen May 17th and 18th, at San Bernardino. 

20. Buteo borealis calurus (Cass.). ( Western Red-tail). 
Not common anywhere. One seen at Yuma, one at Riverside 
and several in Bear Valley. 

21. Buteo Swainsoni Bonap. [Swain son's Hawk). It 
was reported to me that this bird flies over Riverside in small num- 
bers every evening during April and May, going from the plains 


to the cotton woods in the river bottoms. I saw but two, both in 
the San Bernardino Valley. Breeds. 

23. Archibuteo ferrugineus (Licht.). {Ferruginous 
Rough-leg). A large, light-colored hawk which, I think, is refer- 
able to this species, was seen in the barren, rocky hills near Yuma, 
May 15th. It was too wary to admit of an approach. The species 
is a rare Winter visitant in Southern California. 

23. Falco sparverius Linn. {American S farrow Hawk). 
Common everywhere. 

24. Strix pratincola Bonap. {American Barn Owl). 
Not uncommon in the San Bernardino Valley. The stomachs of 
those shot contained fur and bones of several small animals, among 
which were the Harvest Mouse [Ochetodon longicauda), the 
Gopher (Thomomvs tolpoides bulbivorzts), and also the Meadow 
Mouse {Arvicola riparia). 

25. Asio wilsonianus (Less.). [American Long-eared Owl). 
On April 1st, one was shot in the Cohuilla Valley. It was found 
in the low brush near the sink of the stream below the spring. 
The stomach contained the skulls and other remains of two Tuft- 
tailed Pocket Mice [Perognathut penicillatus). 

26. Speotyto cunicularia hypog^a (Bonap.). [Burrow- 
ing Otvl). Common in San Bernardino Valley. None were noted 
elsewhere. Stomachs contained Beetles, Harvest Mice [Ochctodon 
longicazida), and Pocket Gophers {Thomomys tolpoides bulbi- 

The hind quarters of a Kangaroo Rat [Dipodomys phillipsi) 
were found at the entrance to one of their burrows. 

27. Geococcyx californianus (Less.). {Road-runner). 
Rather common. A young & was taken from the nest in San 
Gorgonio Pass, May 27th. The nest was placed in a cholla cactus 
about three feet from the ground, also contained two eggs in which 
incubation was advanced. 

28. Dryobates villosus harrisii (Aud.). {Harrises 
Woodpecker). A $ shot at Bear Valley, June 8th. 

29. Dryobates scalaris (Wag.). [Texan Woodpecker). 
None seen except at Yuma, where they are quite rare. 

30. Dryobates nuttallii (Gamb.). [N~uttalPs Wood- 
pecker). Not common. Three were taken at San Bernardino in 

31. Xenopicus albolarvatus (Cass.). ( White-headed 
Woodpecker). Not uncommon in Bear Valley. Specimens — both 


males and females — taken about the middle of June show signs of 
having incubated. 

32. Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi Ridgw. [Cali- 
fornia Woodpecker'). Common near San Gorgonio. A nest 
found May 30th contained two young birds and three addled eggs, 
two more young had just left the nest. Iris white, tinged with red. 

33. Melanerpes uropygialis (Baird). {Gila Wood- 
pecker). Found only at Yuma, where they were not common. A 
nest found May 4th was excavated in a growing willow on the 
edge of a slough. Eggs three; incubation commenced. The $ 
was very solicitous about her nest, and would not leave the tree in 
which it was built. 

Woodpeckers are not common at Yuma, probably owing to 
the timber being too small to furnish nesting sites. Colaptes chry- 
soides has been taken here, but is probably only a straggler. 

34. Colaptes cafer (Gmel.). {Red-shafted Flicker). 
Common. With this species the male incubates as well as the 

35. Chordeiles texensis Lawr. {Texan JVighthawk). 
Noted at Yuma and in Bear Valley. Is by no means commons 
only four being taken. A? obtained May 5th was nearly ready to 

36. Micropus melanoleucus (Baird). ( White-throated 
Szvift). Rare, especially northward. Two $ taken April 10th 
and 19th in Cohuilla Valley. 

37. Trochilus alexandri Bourc. & Muls. {Black-chinned 
Hummingbird). This species was seen April 3rd in Cohuilla Val- 
ley; they were most common on the 13th, when they were found 
in company with T. coslce, T. rnjus, and T. alleni. They are only 
migrants in this locality. One $ was taken at Yuma, May 5th. 
In the San Benardino Valley they are not uncommon and breed. 
A nest taken May 22nd, was built in a willow eight feet from the 
gi-ound and contained two eggs in which incubation had com- 
menced. None were seen in Bear Valley. 

38. Trochilus cost.e (Bourc). {Costa^s Hummingbird)' 
On the 3i-d of April, while passing a bush in the Cohuilla Valley 
a $ of this species was observed to fly out in such a manner as to 
make me think she had a nest near by. In a few minutes she 
returned, and, after hovering around a little, settled on the nest. It 
was built in a bush of Larrea mexicana about two feet from the 
ground and contained two fresh eggs. The $ was afterwards shot. 


On the 9th, another nest was discovered in the same way. This 
time it was built in a greasewood three feet from the ground and 
contained two eggs in which incubation was commenced. 

On the 13th, I found hummingbirds abundant along a little 
stream at the base of the mountains. Three-fourths of those seen 
were $, and, apparently T. Costce. All were in active motion so 
that it was difficult to get such as I wanted. T. rufus and T. 
alleni were pugnacious as usual but costce held its own well. The 
$ were sharp tempered too, as if the excitement of moving had 
had its usual effect. The next day alleni and rufus were all gone, 
alexandri, however, still remained, though costce was still in much 
greater number. 

The $ of the latter species keep up a pretty constant vocal 
noise while feeding, which somewhat resembles the buzz of their 
wings. The feeding note of the $ is finer and not as frequently 

The note of T. alexandri, both $ and $, is similar to that of 
the ? costce. I have heard the song of each, but it was some time 
since, and, as I remember it, there was little difference between the 
two species. I think that the males are the only ones who sing. 
The song is sweet and very low, but if it is perfectly quiet around, 
it can be distinctly heard for a distance of ten yards. As might be 
expected from the size of the bird, it is on a very high key, some- 
thing like the sound produced by whistling between the teeth, very 
low, yet at a high pitch. It might be called a warble and I have 
heard it kept up for several minutes at a time. At such times I 
have never been able to find a $ in the vicinity and have come to 
the conclusion that it was sung for the individuals own amusement. 

The courtship-song, if such it may be called, is a very different 
affair. We will take T. costce for example: the $ is setting on a 
twig in a low brush, not on an exposed twig as is often the case 
when she is merely resting, but when the $ begins she goes further 
in, as if she feared that he really intended mischief, while he rises 
high in the air, and, with a headlong swoop, comes down, passing 
her and turning with a sharp curve as near her as is possible mounts 
on high to repeat the manoeuvre again and again. A shrill whistle 
is heard as^he begins to descend, starting low and becoming louder 
and louder, until, as he passes her, it becomes a shriek which is 
plainly audibly for a distance of 100 yards or more. As he mounts 
again it dies away only to be repeated at the next descent. This is 
a common manoeuvre with the species. 


For a long time I was unable to decide whether the sound was 
vocal or mechanical, as it at first seemed as if the increase in volume 
and pitch of the sound was due to the increased velocity of the 
descent, especially so as the sound died away when he rose, but 
I now believe it to be purely vocal. 

Their velocity at such times is very great, so great that should 
the bird accidentally strike a branch he would not only be killed, 
but undoubtedly torn to pieces. I can compare it to nothing but 
the swoop of the Falcon, and I think that the velocity of the 
hummer at such times at least equals that of the Falcon. The eye 
cannot keep track of the bird at the lower part of the curve — with 
some practice I was able to keep him in sight through all the rest 
of the circle, but, as he came down faster and faster, I lost him, 
only to spy him again when he had risen a short distance. 

I have watched quite a number this Spring and all of them 
seem to go over the same course as nearly as possible. Some rise 
much higher than others, the extreme height being some 400 feet 
and the minimum 40 to 50 feet, with an average of about 200 feet. 
The number of swoops per minute varies from two to ten (approx- 

I have three times seen $ of T. alexandri go through a similar 
performance. Twice the $ was sitting on an exposed twig when 
the $ swung back and forth before her, meanwhile giving vent to 
a peculiar bee-like buzzing sound. This swing was nearly hori- 
zontal and only three or four feet in extent. On the other occasion 
the $ was sitting in the shelter of a mesquite, the $ rose 30 01-40 
feet in the air, sweeping down again like T. costcz but, instead of 
passing on overhead and thus completing the circle, he swung 
back through an arc, reversing his direction at each end. 

The sound, like that of costce, increased as he descended and 
died away again as he rose. It was not, however, quite as shrill 
as with coslce, and as it became loudest it became tremulous, like 
the tremolo of an organ. This tremulous quality proves its vocal 
origin. As it was impossible to tell the species in its active motions 
and as the note was new to me I carefully kept him in view until 
he alighted, when I shot him. 

On June 23rd, I witnessed the swooping manoeuvre of T. 
calliope. He did not rise far after his downward plunge, but re- 
versed his direction, flying back over the same track as in the down- 
ward swoop, then reversing again, he flew higher. He made but 
two or three passes. 


The whistle made during his descent was quite low and the 
buzzing sound made as he passed the other bird, a young T. costce, 
was coarser than I had heretofore thought. It also lacked all whistl- 
ing character. I also noticed another swooping back and forth, 
but heard no whistle or other vocal sound. 

There is still another hummer-note — that of the chase. They 
are very fond of chasing one another, sometimes for sport, often for 
spite. This note also resembles the feeding note, but is louder and 
possesses a chippering character, sometimes almost like the sound 
produced by lightly and rapidly smacking the lips together. I can 
detect but little difference between the sexes and it appears much 
the same whether the chase is in sport or in anger. Furthermore, it 
is often made by the pursued as well as the pursuer. At such times 
I am always reminded of a lot of school-boys playing tag. 

If a hummer is perched and a person passes near they start off, 
uttering a note similar to that made while feeding, but, should it be 
a $ which you have frightened from her nest she will go off 

Several, both old and young, were taken at San Bernardino, 
and at Bear Valley a number of young were observed. These 
last had most probably migrated here from below. 

39. Trochilus rufus Hmel. {Rufous Hummingbird). 
Common during the migrations. Do not breed so far south as San 

40. Trochilus alleni (Hensh.). (Alleys Hummingbird). 
The same remarks apply to this as to the preceding. 

41. Trochilus calliope Gould. {Calliope Hu7nming- 
bird). Not uncommon. They were most numerous in Bear Val- 
ley, where I took three adult 5, two young $ and three young $ in 
three days. I was unabe to find any adult $ of this species. The 
adult $ all stay around the mouths of the canons in Bear Valley, 
not seeming to ascend them. 

42. Tyrannus verticalis Say. (Arkansas Kingbird). 
Common everywhere but at Yuma. Took young on the Mojave 
river June 29th. 

43. Myiarchus cinerascens Lawr. {Ash-throated Fly- 
catcher). -Only two noted. San Bernardino, April 27th, and Bear 
Valley, June 30th. 

44. Sayornis nigricans (Swains.). {Black Phccbe). A 
common bird in nearly all localities. None noted at Yuma, al- 
though they undoubtedly occur there. 


45. Contopusborealis (Swains.). {Olive-sided Flycatcher). 
This species is a rare migrant in Cohuilla Valley and is not com- 
mon in any part of this section. Only two were seen. Cohuilla 
Valley April 8th, and near San Gorgonia May 29th. The latter, 
a $, was laying. 

46. Contopus richardsonii (Swains.). ( Western Wood 
Pewee). One taken in Cohuilla Valley April 7th, and two at 
Bear Valley. They are not uncommon in the mountains. 

47. Empidonax difficilis Baird. {Baird^s Flycatcher). 
Four were taken in Cohuilla Valley and one at San Bernardino. 
This species frequents the thicker parts of the timber in the river 
bottoms at Yuma where they are quite abundant. They were re- 
peatedly shot for E. obscurus and E. hammundi. Only one was 
taken in Bear Valley. 

48. Empidonax hammondi (Xantus). [Hammond 's Fly- 
catcher). One was taken April 14th, in Cohuilla Valley. A few 
were noted at Yuma although they were comparatively rare. A 
$ was shot June 26th in Bear Valley. She had incubated and 
would have laid again shortly. 

49. Empidonax obscurus (Swains.). ( Wright's Fly- 
catcher). This is a very rare bird in the Cohuilla Valley where I 
have taken but one; that April 8th. Another was taken at Ban- 
ning, April 2 1st. At Yuma they were also comparatively rare, 
while none were observed at the other places visited. 

50. Pyrocephalus rubineus mexicanus (Scl.). ( Vermil- 
lion Fly-catcher). This species was found only at Yuma where 
they were not nearly so common as I had expected to find them. 
Young were taken as early as May 6th. 

51. Otocoris alpestris rubea Hensh. [Ruddy Homed 
Lark). None seen in Cohuilla Valley or at Yuma. They were 
common on the plain between Banning and San Gorgonio. I have 
often found them abundant around Riverside (especially in winter), 
where they breed in the vineyards, orchards, etc. They are very 
seldom seen about San Bernardino where the ground is probably 
too damp to suit them. 

A small flock was seen along the marshy bosder of the lake in 
Bear Valley June 8th. 

52. Cyanocitta stelleri frontalis (Ridgw.). {Blue- 
fronted Jay). Abundant in the lower pine regions, but rare in 
Bear Valley. Probably because it is above the oak region where 
their food is found. 


53. Aphelocoma californica (Vig.). {California Jay). 
Not common in San Bernardino Valley. They seldom occur below 
2000 feet altitude. A pair were seen June 19th, north of Bear Val- 
ley, they were on the top of a high ridge of mountains at an alti- 
tude of about 8000 feet. I have never before seen them above the 
lower edge of the pine belt, say at an altitude of 5000 feet. 

54. Picicorvus columbianus (Wils.). [Clarke's Nut- 
cracker). Four were taken in Bear Valley in June. They are not 
uncommon, being found only at high altitudes. 

55. Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus (Wied). {Pinon 
Jay). Not uncommon in Bear Valley. Several young were 
taken in June. Stomachs contained beetles and other insects. Not 
seen elsewhere. 

56. Molothrus ater obscurus (Gmel.). {Dwarf Cow- 
bird.) Common at Yuma. 

57. Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (Bonap.). {Tel- 
low-headed Blackbird). This species is nearly always to be found 
near some of the marshy places in the San Mateo Canon. They 
are of irregular occurrence in the San Bernardino Valley, although 
some are always to be found in some part of it. 

Took nests in Bear Valley in June. They were placed a few 
feet above the water in bulrushes, marsh grass, etc. Eggs usually 

58. Agelaius phceniceus (Linn.). {Red-xvinged Black- 
bird). One was taken in Cohuilla Valley April 16th. They are 
not uncommon in the San Bernardino Valley, where the}'' breed. 

59. Agelaius gubernator (Wagl.). {Bicolored Black- 
bird). This bird should occur here if anywhere. I have never 
seen it and do not believe in the variety.* 

60. Agelaius tricolor (Nutt). {Tricolor ed Blackbird). 
One was obtained at San Gorgonio May 26th. They are more 
common in winter. 

61. Sturnella magna neglecta (Aud.). {Western 
Meadoxvlark). Probably only a migrant in Cohuilla Valley and 
at Yuma. Common around San Bernardino and not uncommon in 
Bear Valley. 

62. Icterus parisorum Bonap. {Scott's Oriole). One was 
heard April 6th. in Chino canon, Cohuilla Valley. Rare; this i 

* We have seen undoubted specimens of var. gubernator which were collected in the San 
Bernardino Valley. Furthermore, we do not see how Mr, Stephens can admit tricolor and con- 
sistently reject gubernator — Ed, 


the only one noted. I had expected to find some few breeding in 
the Valley as I have seen old nests there, 

63. Icterus cucullatus Swains. [Hooded Oriole). Rare: 
only two obtained. April 21st. at Banning and May 13th. at 

64. Icterus bullocki (Swains.). (Bullocks Oriole). Com- 
mon. Was seen at all places. Breeds commonly north of the Col- 
orado Desert. 

65. Scolecophagus c yanocephalus (Wagl.). [Brewer's 
Blackbird). Common everywhere near water and in fields. 

66. Carpodacus purpureus californicus Band. [Cal- 
ifornia Purple Finch). Three were taken in Cohuilla Valley. 
They are a rare Winter resident this far south. 

67. Carpodacus frontalis (Say). [House Finch). A 
nest of this bird was found in Cohuilla Valley April 5th. It con- 
tained three young. The stomach of one which was shot contained 
small, half formed seeds. A male taken in Bear Valley June nth. 
was in full song, but the song seemed different from anything I had 
previously heard. It is a common bird with us.* 

68. Spinus tristes (Linn.). [American Goldfinch). A 
pair was taken at San Bernardino May 17th. 

69. Spinus psaltria (Say). [Arkansas Goldfinch). Com- 
mon in the Cohuilla Valley. They are gregarious, but the flocks 
are small. 

70. Spinus lawrencei (Cass.). [Lawrence 's Goldfinch). 
Not common in any locality visited. Noted from Cohuilla Valley 
April 12th. and 15th. and Bear Valley June 22nd. 

71. Spinus pinus (Wils.). [Pine Siskin). A pair was 
taken April 12th. in Cohuilla Valley. 

72. Ammodramus sandwichensis alaudinus (Bonap.). 
( Western Savanna Sparrow). Only two of this species were 
noted. One, a $, in Cohuilla Valley April 3rd. The other a $, 
between Banning and San Gorgonio April 23rd. This last was 

73. Chondestes grammacus strigatus (Swains.). ( Wes- 
tern Lark Sparrow) Common resident. Breeds. 

74. Zonotrichia gambeli (Nutt.). [GambePs Sparrow). 
This species was not found common anywhere, only five specimens 

* I have here included var. rhodocolpus, which Mr. Ridgway informs me has been decided 
to be only individual variation. — Ed. 


having been taken. Four in Cohuilla Valley and one at Banning. 
They are abundant Winter residents. 

75. Spizella socialis Arizona Coues. ( Western Chip- 
ping Sparrow). A $ shot in Cohuilla Valley April 1st answers 
Dr. Coue's description of this variety, but I doubt if the variety is 
tenable. Specimens from nearer the coast show all gradations of 
the crown patch. One was taken at Banning and another at Yuma. 
They seem to be uncommon in these localities while I found thern 
rather common at Bear Valley in the open parts of the pine timber. 
A young male was taken here June nth, which proves that they 
breed in this locality. 

76. Spizella breweri Cass. {Brewer's Sparrow). This 
was a common bird in all the localities visited except Yuma, where 
it probably occurs in Winter as well as during the migrations. They 
evidently breed in Bear Valley. 

77. Spizella atrigularis (Cab.). [Black- chinned Spar- 
row). This is not a common bird in the Cohuilla Valley, at least at 
this time of the year. They were found at all the localities visited 
with the exception of Yuma, where they probably occur as migrants. 
A $ shot April 30th at San Bernardino was laying, had probably 
dropped one egg as the ovary contained three well developed ova. 
They were rather common in the lower part of Cajon Pass. 

78. Junco hvemalisoregonus (Towns.). {Oregon Junco). 
Not uncommon in Bear Valley where they breed. 

79. Amphispiza biline ata (Cass.). {Black-throated Spar- 
row.) Appears to be common in Cohuilla Valley where several 
were taken between April 5th and 15th. A pair of the birds, 
together with a nest containing young, was seen on the Mojave 
River June 5th. 

80. Amphispiza belli (Cass.). {BeWs Sparrow). Not un- 
common in the Mojave Desert. One was taken in Cajon Pass June 
4th and two were observed in Bear Valley. 

81. Melospiza fasciata fallax (Baird). {Desert Song 
Sparrow). Observed only at Yuma which is the only locality 
visited in which it is found. 

S2. Melospiza fasciata heermanni (Baird.). Hecrtnanii's 
Song Sparrow). This species is not uncommon in Cohuilla Valley 
and near San Bernardino. At Yuma they are replaced by variety 

A ? taken in Cohuilla Valley April 7th had already raised a 


brood, while another taken at San Bernardino on the 27th was still 

S3. Melospiza lincolni (Aud.). {Lincoln's Sparrow). 
Three were obtained in the Cohuilla Valley. No others were 

84. Passerella iliac a mkgarhyncha (Baird). [Thick- 
billed Sparrow). Found only in Bear Valley. They were not 
common. Young were taken June 12th. 

85. Pipilo maculatus megalonyx (Baird). {Spurred 
Towhee). One was obtained May 25th near San Gorgonio and 
another in Bear Valley June 12th. 

86. Pipilo chlorurus (Towns.). {Green-tailed Towhee). 
Was not uncommon in Bear Valley in June. 

87. Pipilo fuscus crissalis (Vig.). {Californian Tow- 
hee). Common in many localities. 

88. Pipilo alberti Baird. {Albert's Towhee). This 
species was found only at Yuma where it was common. As a 
usual thing it keeps strictly to the bottom lands. Its habits are 
much like those of the other brown Pipilos, none of which are 
such vigorous scratchers in the leaves as the black Pipilos. Alberti 
is least of all addicted to this habit. 

Its calls and song are pitched on a higher key than any of the 
others and might be called squeaky. 

None of the others of the family were found at Yuma, although 
P. chlorurus is most probably found as a migrant and P. fuscus 
mesoleucus may occur in suitable localities, such as the bases of low 
mountains and in the broken ground away from the river. 

89. Habia melanocephala (Swains.). {Black-headed 
Grosbeak). But three noted, one at Yuma and a pair in Bear 
Valley, They breed abundantly in the mountains. 

90. Guiraca c^rulea (Linn.). {Blue Grosbeak). Not 
common in the San Bernardino Valley. At Yuma they were found 
moderately abundant. 

91. Passerina amcena (Say). {Lazuli Bunting). Common 
in San Bernardino and Bear Valleys. 

92. Piranga ludoviciana (Wils.). {Louisiana Tanager). 
One shot at San Bernardino, another at Yuma, and another at San 

93. Piranga rubra cooperi Ridgw. {Cooper's Tanager). 
Three were seen at Yuma. I have never seen them further west. 

94. Petrochelidon lunifrons (Say). {Cliff Swallow). 


A colony of these birds built their nests under the juncture of th e 
larger branches with the trunks of the large pines in Bear Valley, no 
suitable cliffs being near the water. 

95. Tachycineta thalassina (Swains.). [Violet-Green 
Swallow). Abundant everywhere during the migrations. Three 
observed in Bear Valley in June. 

96. Phainopepla nitens (Swains.). [Phainopepla). This 
does not seem to be a common bird in Cohuilla Valley, only one be- 
ing noted; a $, April 6th. A single bird was also observed in a 
patch of cacti near San Bernardino, April 29th, and one near San 
Gorgonio, May 25th. 

At Yuma they are not uncommon, several being taken, among 
which were two young. They are very irregular in their appear- 
ance on the west side of the mountains. 

97. Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides (Swains.). 
( White-rumped Shrike). Common. 

98. Vireo gilvus (Vieill.). [Warbling- Vireo). A $ was 
obtained on April 1st in the Cohuilla Valley, where they are only 
migrants. One was also taken May 4th at Yuma. 

99. Vireo solitarius cassinii (Xantus). . [Cassin's 
Vireo). This species is not uncommon in the Cohuilla Valley, 

where several were taken between the 3rd and 13th of April. 

A.t Yuma it is probably only a migrant, although a $ was taken 
May 8th. One was also obtained in Bear Valley June 9th, where 
they probably breed in limited numbers. 

100. Vireo bellii pusillus (Coues). [Least Vireo). This 
species was not common in any of the localities visited. Two were 
noted in Cohuilla Valley; one at San Bernardino, and a few at 
Yuma. I was fortunate enough to discover a nest at the latter place 
May 1 2th. It was placed in a small bush in a thicket, was about 
three feet from the ground, and contained three eggs, besides one 
of Molothrus ater obscurns, in which incubation had commenced. 

101. Vireo vicinior Coues. [Gray Vireo). This species 
was met with only in Cajon Pass, where they were not uncommon, 
six being taken June 4th. and 5th. and another July 1st. Several 
more were also heard. 

June 4th. I found a nest and four eggs. Three of them were 
very nearly fresh, the other had been incubated four or five days. 

The nest was built in the chaparral which thickly covers the 
whole region, and was about four feet from the ground. It was 
very lightly attached except on one side, but the bush in which it 


was built was so stiff and matted together that it could have moved 
but little, even in a strong wind. 

It is a rare bird in Southern California so far as my experience 
goes and from its inhabiting such thick brush is very hard to get at. 

102. Helminthophila. ruficapilla gutturalis Ridgw. 
(Calaveras Warbler). This is a very rare species with us, I have 
only taken one specimen prior to this year when I was fortunate 
enough to obtain three males in the Cohuilla Valley on April 9th., 
1 2th., and 14th., respectively. It seems strange to me that this 
species is wanting in the interior. 

103. Helminthophila celata lutescens (Ridgw.). (Lu- 
tescent Warbler). This species is not uncommon in the Cohuilla 
Valley during the migrations. Five specimens were taken between 
April 1st. and 12th. I have no record of its occurrence at Yuma. 
A young $ was taken in Bear Valley June 25th. 

104;* Dekdroioa iEOTiVA (Gmcl. ). (Fellow Warbler). Com- 
mon everywhere. 

105. Dendroica auduboni (Towns.). (Audubon's Warbler). 
Quite abundant in the Cohuilla Valley where they are Winter resi- 
dents in small numbers. Not uncommon at Bear Valley. A ? 
taken at the latter place June 19th. had a feather in her mouth, and, 
as she was hopping about the ground, I suppose she was in search 
of other materials for a nest. Her abdomen contained a mass of 
tape-worms that would equal one of her eggs in bulk. A few 
breed in the high mountains. They are common Winter residents 
in the coast region. 

106. Dendroica nigrescens (Towns.). (Black Throated 
Gray Warbler). Probably only a migrant in the Colorado Desert. 
They breed not uncommonly in Bear Valley where several, both 
adults and young were taken in June. 

107. Dendroica townsendi (Nutt). (Towns end" 1 s Warbler). 
Rare. Only three were seen. These were taken at Yuma May 
13th. They were excessively fat. The species is a rare migrant 
in Southern California. 

108. Geothlypis macgillivrayi (Aud.). (Macgillivray* s 
Warbler). Not uncommon in Cohuilla Valley and at Yuma. None 
were noted elsewhere although they occur at San Bernardino and 
probably in Bear Valley. 

109. Geothlypis trichas occidentalis Brewst. ( Western 
Vellowthroat) This species is not common in Cohuilla Valley; 
three specimens were taken here and one at Banning. 


no. Icteria virens longicauda (Lawr.). {Long-tailed 
Chat), Two $ were taken at Yuma. They are occasional at San 

in. Sylvania pusilla pileolata (Pall.). (Pileolated 
Warbler). But six of this species are noted. Four from Cohuilla 
Valley, one from Banning, and one from Yuma. 

112. Anthus pensilvanicus (Lath.). {American Pipit). 
One taken in Cohuilla Valley April 9th. was moulting. They are 
rather common Winter residents in Southern California. 

113. Oroscoptes montanus (Towns.). {Sage Thrasher). 
A young $ was shot at Rabbit Springs June 6th. It was most 
probably raised in the immediate vicinity. Several more were seen 
but they were too shy to admit of an approach within gunshot. 

114. Mimus polyglottos (Linn.). {Mockingbird). A com- 
mon resident. 

115. Harporhynchus redivivus (Gamb.). {Calif ornian 
Thrasher). Common in the San Bernardino Valley. A $ shot 
May 1st was incubating. 

116. Harporhynchus lecontei (Lawr.). {Leconte's 
Thrasher). On April 10th a young $ was taken from a nest in 
Cohuilla Valley. The brood consisted of four but the others were 
left a few days 

A nest containing four eggs was also found on the same day, 
It was built in a cholla cactus about 2,y 2 feet from the ground. It 
was an old nest which had been relined and was so rotten as to fall 
to pieces while I was trying to get it out of the cactus. The eggs 
contained feathered embyros. The $ flew from the nest on my 
approach I tried fully half an hour to get a shot at her but had to 
give it up as she finally got so wild that she hid. 

Today I must have driven ten miles through country well 
suited to the wants of this species and where they should be found, 
if they are in the country with the above results. I also found 
several old nests, some of which must have been made many years, 

I have seen but one nest built in anything but a cholla cactus 
{Opuntia), this was placed in a "turpentine tree," a peculiar, 
almost leafless shrub with dense, thorny branches. 

To find the nest of this bird one needs to drive about in the 
sage bush, greasewood, and other chaparrel, where it grows sparsely 
and has a cholla interspersed here and there. A glance at each 


cholla will usually suffice, as the nest is large and conspicuous. At 
times, if the cholla is more bushy than usual, a closer inspection is 
necessary. The parents sit closely, so that one can approach within 
a few yards before they slip off — which they usually do on the op- 
posite side — and, dropping to the ground, run away, taking care to 
keep behind brush, etc., so that one may not see them at all. When 
they fly it is usually only high enough to clear the brush. In run- 
ning they carry the long tail elevated more or less above the hori- 

On April i ith a $ was seen to fly from a nest in a cholla. This 
nest was about two feet from the ground and contained four e^sfs 
in which incubation was advanced. 

On the 1 6th I again visited the nest from which I took the 
young $ on the ioth. One of the remaining three was out of the 
nest, though only a few yards distant. The others would probably 
have left to-morrow. When I first saw this nest, March 30th, the 
young were about three days old, which shows that the young of 
this species must leave the nest when about twenty days old. 

On the 17th I found a nest and two eggs. It was left for the 
full set, which consisted of only three in this instance. The nest 
was placed in a cholla about three feet from the ground. 

The bird is not very rare in suitable places. I found them also 
in San Gorgonio Pass on May 27th, and in a scattering growth of 
vuccas on the Mojave Desert near the river of the same name. 
None were noted at Yuma. 

117. Harporhynchus crissalis (Henry). (Crissal 
Thrasher). Noted at Yuma only. They are not common, only a 
few being seen. They are also very wild and hard to approach. 

118. Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus (Lafr.). [Cactus 
Wren). Common, breeding in all the localities visited excepting 
Bear Valley, where none were seen. All the nests found were 
placed in tuni or cholla cacti. 

119. Salpinctes obsoletus (Say). [Rock Wren). Only 
three were noted: Cohuilla Valley, Yuma, and Bear Valley. It 
is a common Winter resident in some localities. 

120. Catherpes mexicanus conspersus Ridgw. {Canon 
Wren). I regard this as a rare bird with us. The only one noted 

this Spring was heard in the cliffs in Cohuilla Valley April 14th, I 
was, however, unable to get a glimpse of it. 

It only sang at tantalizingly long intervals, changing its posi- 
tion after every cessation. 


i2i. Thryothorus bewickii spilurus (Vig.). [Vigor's 

Wren). But one noted. A young, near San Gorgonio, May 25th. 

122. Troglodytes aedon parkmanii (Aud). Parkman's 
Wren). Common: the House Wren of this section. I have no 

record of its occurrence at Yuma in Summer. 

123. Cistothorus palustris (Wils.). {Long-billed Marsh 
Wren). Not common in the Cohuilla Valley although may be 

found about the water. Generally distributed in marshy localities. 

124. Certhia familiaris Americana (Bonap.). {Brown 
Creeper). Only one noted. A <$, Bear Valley, June 10th. 

125. Sitta carolinensis aculeata (Cass.). [Slender-billed 
Nzithatch). Found only in the pine region. 

126. Sitta pygm^ea Vig. {Pygmy Nuthatch). Not com- 
mon. Found only in Bear Valley, where five were taken. 

127. Parus inornatus Gamb. {Plain Titmouse). This is 
a very rare species here. I have not seen one before in several 
years. Two were shot in the chaparral near San Gorgonio and 
two in Cajon Pass. 

128. Parus gambeli Ridgw. {Mountain Chickadee). Sev- 
eral were seen near San Gorgonio May 29th. They were probably 
breeding. Not uncommon in Bear Valley. 

June 10th I saw a 3 of this species go to a pine stub and fly 
away again, I enlarged the opening and was surprised to find the 
$ on the nest. I caught her in my hand. The nest was placed in 
what was originally a "weather chick" in the wood, which had 
rotted away some, the pieces being in all probability carried out by 
the birds. It contained seven eggs far advanced in incubation, 

129. Psaltriparus minimus californicus Ridgw. {Cali- 
fornian Bush-til). Common in San Bernardino and Bear Valleys 
where they breed. Young were taken as early as May 19th. 

130. Auriparus flaviceps (Sund.). {Verdin). A young 
$ was taken from the nest (from which another flew on my ap- 
proach) in Cohuilla Valley, April 2d. Another, together with the 
adult $, was also taken the same day and in the same locality. They 
were probably the parent and another young of the same brood. 
The adult bird would have laid again on the morrow. 

At Cohuilla Valley this species was more common than I had 
expected to find them. Their nests are comparatively easv to find, 
being very bulky for so small a bird. They are usually found near 
the ends of the branches of some thorny tree or shrub, commonly 
the mesquite in this locality, which grows low, often sprawling 


along the ground in masses 30 or 40 feet in diameter and perhaps 12 
or 15 feet high. In this case it forms an impenetrable, thorny mass 
well suited for a nesting site for this and other species. The mes- 
quite is not plenty here, occurring only where the soil is fairly 
good. There is one grove of two or three acres where they grow 
more tree-like. This is a favorite resort for A.faviceps. 

On the 9th of April a $ was taken from a nest containing four 
eggs. The nest was about six feet above the ground among the 
branches of a mesquite. Incubation was so far advanced that one 
egg popped open in blowing. 

At Yuma the birds were not common. Seven adults and one 
young were taken. I also found two nests, one old one, and the 
other already deserted by the young. None were seen else- 

The song is short end clear, but not often heard, the usual note 
being " tsup" which is uttered quite loudly for so small a bird. This 
note is uttered repeatedly, though at times they will remain silent 
for several minutes when they will commence again from a different 
position. They are very restless little fellows, and one needs to be 
active to get them. They are not gregarious like other titmice. 

131. Regulus calendula (Linn.). {Ruby -crowned Kin glef). 
A regular Winter visitor in Southern California. 

132. Polioptila ccerulea (Linn.). {Blue- Gray Gnatcaicher. 
Not very common in the San Bernardino Valley, where they breed 
small numbers. Was not seen at Yuma where variety plumbea 
takes its place. I think, however, that it is a Winter resident there. 

133. Polioptila plumbea Baird. {Plumbeous Gnatcaicher). 
This bird was met with only at Yuma, where it was rather common. 
I have seen several families besides finding two sets of eggs. The 
usual number to a brood is four, but I think that in one instance I 
saw five. It is found in the thick mesquite timber, in the willows, 
and in the sage brush at the edge of the hills. In fact they seem to 
care little what the timber is so long as there is plenty of it. They 
are very restless and their calls are very weak, especially when 
compared with ccerulea. 

The black caps of the males of plumbea and Calif ornica are 
worn but little more than half the year, i. e. — in the breeding sea- 
son. From about September to February the males, like the 
females, being gray-crowned, but probably, in some cases, showing 
traces of the black cap. As far as I can remember the black 
markings of the forehead, etc., of ccerulea are persistent. 


On May 3rd I found a pair of these birds at work on a nest, 
the next day it was completed outwardly, although I did not climb 
to see if it was lined. On the Sth I saw the head and tail of the bird 
on the nest. I whistled and it came off and stood on a branch a 
few inches distant. I plainly saw his black cap as he stepped back 
into the nest a moment later, and supposing that he was incubating 
on the full set I shot him. On climbing to the nest I found but two 
eggs and left them for further developments. On the nth I found 
the female on the nest, she sat so closely that I nearly caught her in 
my hands. The nest now contained four eggs, in which incuba- 
tion had just commenced. It was built in a mesquite, 12 feet from 
the ground, and was overhung by a branch of mistletoe. 

On the 14th I found another nest built in a bunch of dead 
mistletoe 10 feet from the ground. I had to drive the $ off the 
nest three times before he would go far enough for it to be safe for 
me to shoot him, even then I had to shake the end of a drooping 
branch to get him off at all. Nest contained four eggs, and one of 
Molothrus ater obscurus. 

134. Polioptila californica Brewst. {Black-tailed Gnat- 
catcher). Only one noted. San Bernardino, April 28th. 

135. Turdus ustulatus (Nutt.). {Russet-backed Thrush). 
One seen in Cohuilla Valley and three at Yuma. They breed in 
the San Bernardino Valley. 

136. Turdus aonalaschk^e auduboni (Baird). {Audubon's 
Hermit Thrush). A $ obtained in Cohuilla Valley, April 15th, 
was the only one seen. They were heard in Bear Valley. 

137. Merula migratoria propinqua Ridgw. ( Western 
Robin). Two were seen in Cohuilla Valley, and a few in Bear 
Valley. The species is an irregular Winter visitant in the valleys 
of Southern California, some Winters not appearing at all and again 
coming in multitudes. A few breed regularly in the pine regions. 

138. Sialia mexicana Swains. {Western Bluebird)- 
Probably only a migrant in Cohuilla Valley and at Yuma. At 
Bear Valley they are common and breed. The nests are generally 
built in holes in stumps. 

139. Sialia arctica (Swains.). {Mountain Bluebird). 
Found only in Bear Valley where they are not common. Young 
were seen June 19th. 



While at National City, San Diego County, California, during 
the Spring of 1883, my attention was directed to the salt marshes 
of that locality as being the place to look for something rare in the 
line of bird life. 

A trip was accordingly made to the matches May 24th, with 
the following success: I found A. beldingi to be very abundant in 
certain spots, as many as five or six being seen from one stand in 
the space of as many minutes. 

At first I was struck with the similarity of action to that Of 
the Yellow-winged Sparrow [Ammodramus savannarum fiasser- 
inus\ more particularly in their manner of flight, as they skimmed 
over the marsh, but a few feet above its surface, in short, irregu- 
lar flights. Being unconscious of the fact that I was among rare 
birds, as it seems they have turned out to be, I regret very much 
that I did not give them the study I should, had I known positively 
what they were. 

Nevertheless, after going over the marsh carefully, for the pur- 
pose of securing specimens of the California Clapper Rail \_Rallus 
obsoletus\ I turned my steps towards the sparrows. 

Three specimens were shot, the second, a female, was flushed 
from a nest of eggs and afterwards shot. She was very shy in 
her movements, and proved to be very difficult to approach ; this 
was augmented by the treacherous condition of the tide-water 
ditches which intersect the marshes in all directions, the larger 
branches being too wide to jump and too muddy to wade; however, 
the bird was finally brought to bag. Had my eyes not been turned 
in the direction of the nest, I should certainly have overlooked it, 
for I could riot have been nearer than seventy or eighty feet when 
the bird flew, but with a peculiarity that immediately attracted my 

She at first shot off quietly a few inches above the marsh, then 
settled down not twenty-five feet away; then upon again, short - 

*This was originally described as Passereulus anthinus, but is, I think, referable to this 
species — Ed. 


ening the flight this time to half that distance, repeating the man- 
euver a number of times. On going to the place whence the bird 
first started up I was not surprised to find the nest. 

That evening a specimen of the bird was shown to a gentle- 
man by the name of Plimpton, residing at National City, who is 
very well posted on birds generally. He was of the opinion that 
they were the Western Savanna Sparrow {Amjnodramus sand- 
wichensis alaudinus), but pronounced the nest a good find. I en- 
tered them in my field book by that name, and should probably have 
been satisfied to call them as such had not my friend Mr. H. K. 
Coale, of Chicago, pointed out the dissimilarity existing between 
them and certain specimens of Ammodramus sandxvichensis alaud- 
inus in his cabinet. A skin was afterwards forwarded by Mr. Coale 
to Mr. Robert Ridgway, of the National Museum, Washington, 
D. C, for identification. It was returned bearing the name Passer- 
cuius anthinus, which fact ought to set at rest all doubts regarding 
identity. To an inquiry by Mr. Coale, about the bird's breeding 
habits, he replies: 

" That as far as he knows the P. anthinus nest and eggs have 
never been recorded, and birds are very rare." Hence these notes 
at the request of Mr. Coale. 

The specimens, Nos. 249, 250 and 252 (author's collection), 
consist of two males and one female. No appreciable difference 
exists between the sexes, except that the males may be a trifle the 
largest. A general description is as follows: 

The back, including crown, is of an ashy-brown color; the 
ash predominating on the cervix, shading to a darker and slightly 
yellowish-brown on the rump. This is streaked with a darker 
brown, the streaks being broadest and thickest in the interscapular 
region. A yellowish superciliary stripe passes from the nostrils 
over the eye to a point a little beyond; there is a faint yellowish 
suffusion around the auriculars and chin, and faint traces of yellow 
in the coronal median stripe. Below, the ground color is of a dirty 
brownish-white, the color being most nearly pure on the abdomen 
and crissum. Breast, sides of neck, and malar region, marked 
with sagittate marks of dark-brown; thickest on the breast, where 
they form into lines. Flanks, sides of body, and under tail coverts, 
striped with dark brown; stripes broadest on the flanks. Primaries, 
secondaries, tertiaries and tail feathers are of a light brown, their 
edges being bordered with a brownish-ash color, presenting a 
bleached look, most noticeable on the tertiaries and rectrices; these 


have a worn appearance. Feet, flesh color. The bill, which is of 
an acuminate shape, horn color, darkest on the culmen; this is a 
little longer than the lower mandible, and slightly hooked at the 

Their average measurements are: Length, 5.18 inches; wing, 
2.62 inches; tail, 2.18 inches; tarsus, .69 inches; culmen, .44 inches. 

The nest, containing three fresh eggs, was situated in a patch 
of marsh weed, apparently raised a little above the surrounding 
ground. Although several feet above tide-water mark, it was com- 
pletely saturated with water. If the female had not been seen to 
leave the nest, and had not the eggs been warm to the touch, I 
should certainly have thought that it was deserted. This is proba- 
bly owing to the porous condition of the ground, and absorbing 
properties of the material used in the construction of the nest. But 
in this connection I will say that I have noticed the same in the 
nests of the Field Plover (Bartramia longicaudd) and Black Tern 
(Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis), and it has often been a mat- 
ter of wonderment to me as to how the eggs could successfully in- 

The composition of the nest consisted almost exclusively of 
weed stalks, with a little grass and a few feathers interwoven, the 
whole arranged in a rather careless manner, without regard to 
strength, which was not required in this case. 

The eggs average seventy-seven one-hundredths of an inch 
in length, by fifty-eight one-hundredths of an inch in breadth. 
Their respective measurements being: .76 x .58 inches, .77 x .59 
inches, and .78 x .58 inches. The ground color is dirty white of a 
brownish tinge, caused by minute specks of brown and lavender. 

Before the eggs were emptied of their contents there was a 
pinkish tinge to the shell resembling the color of the Wood Pewee's 
egg. This is marked with spots and specks of lavender and 
blotches of amber-brown, congregating principally toward the 
larger end, with an occasional streak of a darker brown shade. 
On the whole they may, with propriety, be classed handsome eggs. 



Albinism is a subject, although probably more of a physiolog- 
ical than an ornithological one, which, I think, will prove interesting 
to the majority of ornithologists as well as to the zoologists gener- 
ally. It is one of those little known phases of animal life which 
we have been content to let remain in a state of almost pristine 
obscurity. The ornithological literature on the subject may almost 
be described as nothing, what little we have being merely a few 
lists of those species of birds in which albinism has been known to 
to occur. 

The object of the present paper is not only to give a mere list, 
but to give such physiological facts as I have been able to obtain. 
Further, it is not confined to ornithology alone, but will treat of the 
other divisions of the animal kingdom as well, especial attention 
being paid to the human race. 

In this connection I take pleasure in acknowledging valuable 
aid received from Dr. Geo. Henry Fox, of New York, Mr. 
Robert Ridgway, of Washington, D. C, and several other gentle- 
men to whom due credit is given in the following pages. 

The term "albino" was first used by the Portugese sailors, 
who applied it to the white negroes that they met with on the coast 
of Africa. 

Albinism is a congenital absence of pigment. It is of two 
varieties; universal and partial. 

Dr. Fox * says " an albino of the Caucasian race has a milk- 
white but otherwise normal skin, a growth of white, fine silkv 
hair upon the head, and an absence of pigment in the choroid coat 
of the eye, which gives the iris and pupil a red appearance, such as 
is often noticed in the white rabbit. In other respects the physical 
condition of an albino is normal, and the assertion that mental 
weakness is associated with a general loss of pigment fails to be 
verified in a large proportion of cases." 

The subject is further treated in the American Cyclopcedia\ as 

* Photographic Illustrations of Skin Diseases, by Geo. Henry Fox, M.D., Chap, v., p. 140. 
t Vol. I, pp. 253 & 254. 


follows: " These persons, whether Indian, negro or white, appear 
of a uniformly dead, milky hue, with hair of the same shade, and 
eyes with the iris deficient in the black, or blue, or hazel pigment, 
which in others conceals the delicate network of blood-vessels; and 
the intense redness they diffuse over the surface. In the albino, 
both the pupil and iris lacking this colored curtain, the former, from 
the concentration within it of fine blood-vessels, is of a deep red, 
and the circle around it is of a pink color." 

Speaking of the negroes of Africa, the same authority says: 
" With the features of the negro and the peculiarly woolly form of 
the hair, the jet black hue, which seems given to the inhabitants of 
the tropics to enable them to bear the intense glare of the sun, was 
like that of the white rabbit and ferret, and, like this, better suited 
for use in the moonlight and in places sheltered from the light of 
day. From this inability to bear the light, which, however, is said 
to be much exaggerated, Linnaeus called the albinos ' nocturnal 
men.' They generally lack the strength of other men; and a 
peculiar harshness of the skin, such as is noticed in leprosy, 
would seem to indicate that the phenomenon might result from a 
diseased organization." 

Another account * says " the skin is perfectly pigmentless and 
white, excepting where the blood-vessels coursing beneath it give it a 
rose tint. The general condition of the skin is normal otherwise 
than as regards the absence of pigment. The hair is white or 
flaxen (in one case reported it was red), of a fine texture, and 
peculiarly silky sheen. The eye partakes of the anomaly; the 
iris is colorless', so that its blood-vessels give it a red hue, excepting 
when viewed obliquely the interference of light-rays give it a blue 
color. As a result of a want of pigments in the iris, albinos suffer 
from photophobia and nystagmus, and are seen constantly blinking 
the eyelids and rolling the eyes involuntarily from side to side. 
They see best in the twilight. 

" Albinos are usually of a weak constitution, and are apt to be 
intellectually deficient. Exceptions are known, however, to both 
of these conditions, and one of the best papers extant on albinism, 
so it is said, was written by a German albino named Sachs." 

Still another authorityf says " all coloring of the outer cover- 

* Arthur Van Harling-en in Buck's Reference Handbook of the Medical Sciences, Vol. I, 
p. IOI. 

t Baron Richard von Konig-Warthausen, in Journal fur Ornithologie, Cab. II, 1854, 
pp. »49-2S3- 


ing of birds, no less than of mammals and other animals, depends 
on the existence and nature of a coloring medium. In the absence 
of this, everywhere or only here and there, partly as a rule, partly 
as an exception, white appears. If the pigment, however, exists, 
but in consequence of various not fully explained influences, is, in 
its effects, weaker in some individuals than in normal cases, then 
pale varieties arise. 

" In the eye, as is known, the outer and inner surface of the 
veinal membrane (Choroidea), as well as the inner one of the iris, 
is covered with the so-called pigmenium nigrum. Where this is 
not existing, in consequence of hereditary disease, the blood-vessels 
shine through and the iris and pupil of the eye appear red. 

"In general it may only be conjectured that where the vital 
powers of the body are insufficiently developed and the functions of 
the blood weak, many parts are only supplied with little coloring 
matter, or even none at all. Against this, however, (that such 
symptoms must always be a sign of disease), speaks the fact that 
some animals wear such a raiment at certain seasons of the year, or 
periods of life, and that the white color is altogether very wide 
spread among birds. Besides, it does not follow that the diseased 
condition of certain organs weakens the body in every way, and 
the procreative power of such albinos is surely of decisive import- 
ance in the treatment of the question ; how extended the weakness 
really is. If an animal possesses procreative power the sickly con- 
ditions can have only a small effect on the whole organism and 
extend in our case only to the generation of pigment. Thus, the 
fact that the numerous white varieties of our poultry, although they 
may be somewhat weaker, propagate as normal animals, without a 
gradual degeneration being perceptible, is settled. On the other 
side thei'e is no lack of instances in the free state of nature." 

It will be noticed that while Dr. Fox and Dr. Van Harlingen 
agree in their statements that otherwise than as regards loss of pig- 
ment the skin is normal, the authority in the Cyclopcedia contra- 
dicts this, and says it has a peculiar harshness and may result from 
a diseased organization. My opportunities for observing living or 
freshly killed albinos have been necessarily few and far between, 
but, so far as my experience goes, I would unhesitatingly coincide 
with the former gentleman. 

Another point of dispute seems to lie in the statement bv Dr. 
Fox, that the physical and mental conditions are normal. This is 
disputed by both Dr. Van Harlingen, who says that they are 


usually of a weak constitution and apt to be intellectually deficient, 
and by the authority of the American Cyclopcedia who says they 
lack the strength of other men. However, it will be noticed that Dr. 
Van Harlingen admits that the best paper extant was written by a 
German albino, while Baron Richard von Konig-Warthausen does 
not commit himself to either side of the question. This, it seems 
to me, throws the weight of evidence in favor of the undisturbed 
physical and mental power theory. 

Dr. Van Harlingen* says, " the only etiological element known 
or suspected in the production of albinism is heredity, and even this 
is wanting in the greater number of cases. It seems probable that 
the sisters in any given family are likely to be attacked rather than 
the brothers, if more than one individual is affected." 

The etiology is not mentioned by Dr. Fox or the American 
Cyclopcedia further than that they both agree that it is a congenital 
absence of pigment. 

Baron Richard von Konig-Warthausenf records an instance 
which occurred during his residence at Ulm (1842-1846), where, on 
a public promenade in that city, a pair of white domestic sparrows 
raised a brood of young for several years. 

Another authority J says: "Speaking again of albinos I would 
ike to say something yet about their propagation. 

" It is successful in domestic conditions as I have occasionally 
convinced myself. 

" It may be about ten years since, when I lived in the same 
house with a weaver, who, partly for profit, partly for amusement, 
spent his leisure hours in training several birds; experiments of pair- 
ing different varieties; and bastard raising. Though not always 
successful he often obtained young ones from such breeds, and I 
remember very well his joy over a young one, which he showed 
me one day, that was gotten by the pairing of a white Canary fe- 
male with a male Thistle Finch. It became a beautiful white spec- 
imen with a reddish-yellow breast-plate, but it did not live long. 
The man is now also dead, and I regret it the more as he was just 
the man, with sufficient patience, to continue such experiments. 

" My experiments were limited, not having any albinos of 
other varieties, to the Laughing Dove ( C. risoria), which I paired 

♦Buck's Reference Handbook of the Medical Sciences, Vol. I., p. 101. 
t Journal fur Ornithologie, Cab. II., 1854, pp. 249-253. 
+ Julius Finger. Naumannia, 1853, p. 157. 


among themselves as well as with regularly colored individuals, 
and I was always successful, although I never obtained spotted 
ones, always only one colored specimens, either entirely white or 

" The young ones of these breeds also propagated among 

Another authority* says, " in the same family several children 
are sometimes born albinos. They are generally of the male sex. 
An instance is recorded of a Welsh family, in which every alter- 
nate child was an albino. It is stated by Esquirol that two albinos 
married and had two children which were not albinos, but of quite 
brown color. It is not understood to what ultimate cause the phen- 
omenon is to be attributed." 

I can recall but three cases of this kind among North Ameri- 
can Birds. The first is recorded by my friend Mr. R. Deanef as 
follows: " Another interesting example is that of a voung Robin 
{Merula migratorid), milk-white, still unable to leave the nest. 
This specimen was taken at Saybrook, Conn., by Mr. H. A. Pur- 
die, who informs me that the parent birds were in normal dress." 

The other two cases were reported to me by Mr. Robert Ridgway 
{in epist.), as follows: " Two instances have come to my knowledge 
however, of all (four) specimens of a brood of young Robins 
(Merula migratorid) being perfect albinos (pink eyes and all), the 
parents being in normal plumage. These two cases occurred in the 
same locality (Laurel, Md.), on consecutive years (18S5 and 1886), 
but whether the parents were in both cases the same pair I am not 
sure; but I believe they were not." 

From a careful perusal of the foregoing it will be seen that 
heredity is by no means a necessary adjunct to albinism. 

It will also be noticed that while Dr. Van Harlingen says that 
the females are most likely to be affected the authority of the Cyclo- 
pedia says they are generally of the male sex. 

I have recently examined a large number of albinos and have 
a few records. Out of over two hundred specimens only eighty- 
one had any record of the sex attached or at all obtainable. Of this 
number forty-four, or fifty-four and one-third (54^) per cent, were 
males and thirty-seven, or forty-five and two-thirds (455/3) per cent, 
were females. This shows the predominance of the sexes, in birds 

♦American Cyclopaedia, Vol. I, pp. 253 & 254. 
tBull. Nutt. Orn. Club, Vol. I, 1876, p. 23. 


at least, to be in favor of the males by eight and two-thirds (82^) 
per cent. Of course this is hardly an extensive enough test to settle 
the question satisfactorily, and different persons might arrive at dif- 
ferent results for this reason. I have observed that in taking land 
birds only, the males will average a trifle over fifty-seven (57) per 
cent., and the females a trifle over forty-two (42) per cent., while 
among the water birds the averages that I have obtained are males 
thirty-eight (38) per cent, and females sixty-two (62) per cent. 

Partial albinism is spoken of by Dr. Fox* as follows: " Part- 
ial albinism is frequently seen in this country among the Southern 
negroes, and some present the appearance of a piebald circus horse. 
The white spot, or spots remain through life without change of size 
or tint. The affection is rarely, if ever, met with in the white race." 
He further saysf "it is said that albinism is not uncommon among 
the negroes of Equatorial Africa, but I imagine that these white 
negroes, to whom the Portugese sailors first applied the term albino, 
were cases of leucoderma in which white patches (not congenital) 
gradually spread until no pigmented skin was left." 

Another authority^ speaking of partial albinism says, " their con- 
dition can probably be accounted for by some circumstances after 
birth which will account for the change in the color of the skin, 
such for instance, as the case given by the writer in the Oologist, in 
which the skin has been injured on the back of a Swift, and the 
next year the patch of white feathers indicated the situation of 
the injury. The same thing is familiar in the case of the horse 
whose back or shoulder is galled by the harness; white patches ap- 
pear owing to the lowered vitality of the injured part." The article 
then goes on to give as a possible cause of partial albinism the fact 
that in four .specimens taken by the writer (a Black Squirrel with 
a white tail and some white about the head, and partially white speci- 
mens of Merula migratoria, Agelaius fhceniceus and Anas boschas) 
he has found tape-worms (Tcenia solium). He also adds that "the 
above may have been merely coincidences; still it has been observed 
sufficiently often to make the fact suspicious as a cause of albinism." 
In regard to the first point, although admitting that such cases 
sometimes occur, I do not think that they do so sufficiently often in 
birds to cut any figure whatever in the production of albinism, and 
furthermore, from a medical standpoint, such cases would come un- 

*Photographic Illustrations of Skin Diseases, by Geo. Henry Fox, M.D. Chap. V, p. 140. 

tin epist. 

%G. A. M'Callum. The Auk. Vol. II, i8Ss, pp. 113 & "4- 


der the head of leucoderma, which is an acquired disease, while 
albinism is a congenital abnormality. 

In reference to the latter conjecture I would say that I am of 
the opinion that the finding of tcenice in the intestines has no bear- 
ing whatsoever upon the question, although I am forced to admit 
that I at one time thought it had. However, I have dissected quite 
a number of albinos in the last few years, and I have found very 
few instances of any organic trouble or the presence of tape-worms. 
Further than this I have found in a number of instances, that tape- 
worms existed in birds of normal plumage, and as the latter cases 
greatly outnumber those in which the plumage was albinistic, I 
have become convinced that it was merely a coincidence and had no 
effect upon the outward condition. 

I remember a case where in a perfectly white Cowbird (Molo- 
thrns ater) the sexual organs had been totally destroyed by a small 
white worm which was, when discovered, imbedded in the supra- 
renal capsule. Another case, which I dissected in the Spring of 
1886, was an albino Lesser Scaup Duck (Ay thy a affinis). In this 
instance I could at first find no traces of the sexual organs what- 
ever, a careful search with a good glass being at last rewarded bv 
my finding an ovary. This was very small, smaller even than you 
would be likely to find in the Mniotiltidce in Winter. However, I 
do not consider that the albinistic state of the plumage was in any 
way brought about by this fact. I then regarded it, and do still, 
as merely a case of non-development. I have also found worms in 
the kidneys of birds of normal plumage, one, a White-throated 
Sparrow (Zonotrichla albicollis), which I shot last Spring, was in 
the same condition as the Cowbird spoken of above, and yet the 
plumage was perfectly normal. Other cases are those of the Wil- 
low Thrush (Turdits fuscescens salicicolus) and Oregon Junco 
(J unco hyetnalis or eg onus) which were shot in Chicago by my 
friend Mr. H. K. Coale. Both of these birds had worms in the 
kidneys and the sexual organs had completely disappeared, but 
they were, nevertheless, in normal dress. 

In short I regard albinism as merely a congenital abnormality 
having no physiological significance. 

Dr. Fox* says "in polar regions an absence of pigment is the 
rule rather than the exception. This being the case it seems strange 
that in the human race albinism should occur with perhaps the 
greatest frequency in regions near the equator." 

♦Photographic Illustrations of Skin Diseases. By Geo. Henry Fox. \I.D. Chap. V. p. 140 


Now, as far as an absence of pigment in polar regions is con- 
cerned I agree with him, but if, as seems probable, he regards arc- 
tic animals such as the Polar Bear {Thalassarctos maritimus) and 
Northern Hare {Lefius americanus) as albinos, I disagree most de- 
cidedly. In the case of the hare the fur is white only part of the 
year, as is well known, and, although the bear is always in white 
dress, still it has not red eyes or any of the other supposed albin- 
istic characteristics, and is, in my opinion, merely a wise provision of 
of nature for their protection. 

We have several white birds, notably the Snowy Heron (Ardea 
candidissima), but I have never heard them called albinos nor do I 
believe that they are. 

If white is the normal dress, and we admit that albinism is a 
congenital abnormality, it is beyond my comprehension how anyone 
can claim that such animals are albinos. In other words, how can 
anything be both normal and abnormal? 

I will here mention the different forms of albinism as given by 
Baron Richard von Konig-Warthausen.* " On closer observation 
we have to distinguish: (1), Real albinos with red eyes, Leucopa- 
thici : (2), Birds with pure white or almost unchanged eyes, Al- 
bidi: (3), Such birds in which only isolated spots indicate the 
former connections, Maczilati : (!i), Bright, gray, yellowish varia- 
tions, which in comparison with the marked distribution of colors in 
the normal conditions sometimes show them complete, but faded, 
as if they had suffered from outer influences (Weather-beaten; de- 
composition of colors; lime-wash; etc.) Pallescentes. 

" Individuals of the first-class are the rarest. The second has 
various transitions downwards, and the fourth contains many very 
interestingly marked and characteristic specimens." 

One more point I wish to bring up, i. e., the susceptibility of 
the various colors to albinism. I have found during my investiga- 
tions that some colors are much more likely to give way to albinism 
than others. Black seems to be the most susceptible, as is well illus- 
trated by the large number of perfect albinos found among the Cor- 
vidce and Icteridce. On the other hand, red and yellow seem to be 
the colors least susceptible and capable of holding out longest against 
albinistic influence. I will cite a few cases as proof of this asser- 
tion. There is in the collection of Mr. R. Deane, of Chicago, a 
perfect albino Flicker [Colaptes auratus), barring the red nuchal 
crescent and the yellow on the under surfaces of the wing and tail 

♦Journal fur Ornithologfie, Cab. II, 1854, pp. 249-253. 


feathers. These colors are normal, and the result is one of the 
handsomest albinos it has ever been my fortune to see. This speci- 
men is exactly duplicated by one which Mr. Robert Ridgway de- 
scribed to me. Another instance is the red shoulder-patch on the 
Red-winged Blackbird {Agelaius phoeniceus). I do not remember 
ever having seen an albino of this species that did not show some 
traces of the red on the shoulder, generally it is quite pronounced. 
Still another example is that of the Redstart (Setophaga ruticllld) 
described by Mr. Deane* and now in his collection. " The black 
head and breast are mottled with white, the black dorsum is re- 
placed by bright orange\ with a few blackish feathers intermixed, 
while the belly and crissum are much more strongly marked with 
orange than in a typical specimen." The same authority records 
in the same article a specimen of Acanthis linaria, pure white 
with the exception of the crimson crown-patch. A specimen of 
Tyrannns tyrannus also retains the flame-colored crown-patch. 
Another example is a specimen of Sturnella magna neglecta in 
the collection of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, D. C. 
It is a perfect albino barring the yellow on the breast, which in this 
case, is a bright lemon. 

The most complete list of North American birds which have 
been found in albinistic plumage has been published by Mr. R. 
Deane,J and records examples of 119 species. To this list I can add 
thirty-five species, the following being as complete a list as I have 
been able to compile. 

1. Urinator lumme (Gunn.). Red-throated Loon. A spec- 
men is in the collection of R. Deane, of Chicago, 111. 

2. Fratercula arctica glacialis (Temm.). Large- 
billed Pztffin.** 

3. Cepphus grylle (Linn.). Black Guillemot. \\ 

4. Uria troile (Linn.). Murre.\\ 

5. Alle alle (Linn.). Dovekie. A pure white specimen 
is in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History 
at New York. 

6. Stercorarius parasiticus (Linn.). Parasitic jaeger.** 

7. Larus heermanni Cass. Heerman's Gull.\\ 

*Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, Vol. I, 1S76, p. 21. 
tltalics are my own. 

{Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, Vol. I, 1S76, pp. 20-24, Vol. IV, 1S79, pp. 27-30, and Vol. V, 1S80, 
PP- 25-30- 

**Deane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, Vol. V, 1SS0, pp. 25-30. 
ttDeane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, Vol. I, 1876, pp. 20-24. 
frtDeane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, Vol. IV. 1S79, pp. 37 30. 


8. Ossifraga gigantea (Gm.). Giant Fulmar* 

9. Merganser serrator (Linn.). Red-breasted Mer- 
ganser. A pure white specimen has been collected near Niagara 

10. Anas boschas Linn. Mallard. A specimen is in the 
collection of the American Field, at Chicago, 111. 

n. Anas obscura Gmel. Black Duck. A specimen is in 
the collection of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, D. C. 

12. Anas strepera Linn. Gadwall. A $ which was 
collected at Warsaw, 111., April 15th, 1886, is now in the collection 
of C. K. Worthen.f 

13. Anas penelope Linn. Widgeon. A pure white spec- 
imen is in the collection of F. Lorquin, of San Francisco, Cala.f 

14. Anas crecca Linn. European Teal.\ 

15. Anas carolinensis Gmel. Green-winged Teal. A 
specimen is in the collection of the American Field at Chicago, 111. 

16. Anas discors Linn. Blue-winged Teal.* 

17. Spatula clypeata (Linn.). Shoveller. A specimen 
is in the collection of the American Field at Chicago, 111. 

18. Dafila acuta (Linn.). Pintail. A specimen is in the 
collection of R. Deane, of Chicago, 111. 

19. Aythya Americana (Eyt.). Redhead. A specimen is 
in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, D.C. 

20. Aythya vallisneria (Wils.). Canvas-back. A spec- 
imen is in the collection of R. Deane, of Chicago, 111. 

21. Aythya affinis (Eyt.). Lesser Scaup Duck. A spec- 
imen is in the collection of Geo. L. Toppan of Chicago, 111. 

22. Glaucionetta clangula AMERiCANA(Bonap.). Amer- 
ican Golden-Eye. A specimen is in the collection of the Smith- 
sonian Institution at Washington, D. C. 

23. Charitonetta albeola (Linn.) Buffle-head.* 

24. Clangula hyemalis (Linn.). Old-squaw. A speci- 
men is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution at Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

25. Oidemia Americana Sw. & Rich. American Scoter. \ 

26. Oidemia fusca (Linn.). Velvet Scoter* 

27. Oidemia perspicillata (Linn.). Surf Scoter. A spec- 
imen is in the collection of R. Deane, of Chicago, 111. 

*Deane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, Vol. I, 1876, pp. 20-24, 

tFrom the Note-book of R. Deane. 

$Deane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, Vol: V, 18S0, pp. 25-30. 


28. Erismatura rubida (Wils.). Ruddy Duck* 

29. Branta canadensis (Linn.). Canada Goose. A spec- 
imen is in the collection of F. Lorquin, of San Francisco, Cala.* 

30. Branta bernicla (Linn.). Brant.\ 

31. Dendrocygna fulva (Gmel.). Fulvous Tree-duck.\ 

32. Botaurus lentiginosis (Montag.). American Bit- 
tern. \ 

33. Porzana Carolina (Linn.). Sora. A specimen was 
described to me by Mr. Robert Ridgway as follows: Primaries 
snow-white, the rest of the plumage being normal. Toes bright 
gamboge vellow, presenting a striking contrast to the olive of the 
tarsi. The toes did not shade gradually into yellow, but were sep- 
arated by a sharply defined boundary-line. 

34. Gallinula galeata (Licht.). Florida Gallinule. A 
specimen in the collection of R. Deane, of Chicago, 111., was shot at 
English Lake, Ind. 

35. Fulica Americana Gmel. American Coot. A speci- 
men is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution at Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

36. Scolopax rusticola Linn. European Woodcock.^ 

37. Philohela minor (Gmel.). American Woodcock.] 

38. Gallinago delicata (Ord). Wilson's Snipe. A spec- 
imen is in the collection of Geo. L. Toppan, of Chicago, 111. 

39. Tringa canutus Linn. Knot§ 

40. Tringa minutilla Vieill. Least Sandpiper. A spec- 
imen is in the collection of R. Deane, of Chicago, 111. 

41. Ereunetes pusillus (Linn.). Semipalmated Sand- 

42. Calidris arenaria (Linn.). Sanderliug.^ 

43. Limosa h^emastica (Linn.). Hitdsonian Godwit.§ 

44. Numenius longirostris Wils. Loiig-billed Curlew.% 

45. Numenius hudsonicus Lath. Hudsonian Curlexv.% 

46. Charadrius dominicus Mull. American Golden 
Plover. A specimen is in the collection of B. T. Gault, of Chi- 
cago, 111. 

47. Colinus virginianus (Linn.). Bob-xvhite. Several 
specimens are in the collection of G. F. Morcom, of Chicago, 111 - 

48. Oreortyx pictus (Dougl.). Mountain Partridge.\ 

*From the Note-book of R. Deane. 
tDeane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, Vol. I, 1S76, pp. 20-24. 
JDeane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, Vol. IV, 1S79, pp. 27-30. 
fDeane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, Vol. V, 1SS0, pp. 35-30. 


49. Callipepla canifornica (Shaw). Calif ornian Part- 
ridge. A specimen is in the collection of R. Deane, of Chicago, 

50. Callipepla gambeli (Nutt). GambePs Partridge* 

51. Dendragapus canadensis (Linn.). Canada Grouse. 
A specimen is in the collection of R. Deane, of Chicago, 111. 

52. Bonasa umbellus (Linn.). R?<ffed Grouse. A speci- 
men is in the collection of G. F. Morcom, of Chicago, 111. 

53. Tympanuchus americanus (Reich.). Prairie Hen. 
A specimen is in the collection of G. F. Morcom, of Chicago, 111. 

54. Pedioccztes phasiane/lus columbianus (Ord). Columbian 
Sharp-tailed Grouse. * 

55. Meleagris gallopavo Linn. Wild Turkey. * 

56. Ectopistes migratorius (Linn.). Passenger Pigeon. \ 

57. Cathartes aura (Linn.). Turkey Vulture. * 

58. Buteo buteo (Linn.). European Buzzard. * 

59. Buteo borealis (Gmel.). Red-tailed Hawk. A spec- 
imen is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution at Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

60. Aquilaxhrysaetos (Linn.). Golden Eagle. * 

61. Syrnium nebulosum (Forst.). Barred Owl. \ 

62. Coccyzus erythrophthalmus (Wils.). Black-billed 
Cuckoo. A specimen is in the collection of R. Deane, of Chicago 

63. Ceryle alcyon (Linn.). Belted Kingfisher. \ 

64. Dryobates villosus (Linn.). Hairy Woodpecker. * 

65. Dryobates pubescens (Linn.). Downy Woodpecker. 
A specimen is in the collection of R. Deane, of Chicago, 111. 

66. Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Linn.). Red-headed 
Woodpecker. * 

67. Melanerpes carolinus (Linn.). Red-bellied Wood- 
pecker. A specimen is in the collection of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution at Washington, D. C. 

68. Colaptes auratus (Linn.). Flicker. A specimen is 
in the collection of R. Deane, of Chicago, 111. 

69. Ch^etura pelagica (Linn.). Chimney Swift. J 

70. Trochilus colubris Linn. Ruby-throated Humming- 
bird. * 

*Deane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, Vol. V, 18S0, pp. 25-30. 

tDeane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, Vol. I, 1876, pp. 20-24. • • 

+Deane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, Vol. IV, 18T9, pp. 27-30. 


71. Trochilus anna (Less.). Amicus Hummingbird. * 

72. Milvulus forficatus (Gmel.). Scissor-tailed Fly- 
catcher. * 

73. Tyrannus tyrannus (Linn.). Kingbird. \ 

74. Sayornis nigricans (Swains.). Black Phoebe. A 
specimen is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution at 
Washington, D. C. 

75. Contopus virens (Linn.). Wood Pewee. \ 

76. Alauda arvensis Linn. Skylark. § 

77. Otocoris alpestris praticola Hensh. Prairie 
Horned Lark. A specimen is in the collection of R. Deane, of 
Chicago, 111. 

78. Otocoris alpestris chrysol.ema (Wagl.). Mexican 
Horned Lark. A specimen is in the collection at Woodward's 
Gardens, San Francisco, Cala. || 

79. Cyanocitta cristata (Linn.). Bine Jay. A specimen 
is in the collection of G. F. Morcom, of Chicago, 111. 

So. Aphelocoma sieberii arizon.e Ridgw. Arizona 

Si. Corvus corax sinuatus (Wagl.). American Raven* 
82. Corvus americanus Aud. American Crow. A spec- 
men is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution at Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

53. Corvus ossifragus Wils. Pish Crozv. A specimen 
is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, 
D. C. 

54. Sturnus vulgaris Linn. Starling.^ 

55. Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linn.). Bobolink. Speci- 
mens are in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution at Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

56. Molothrus ater (Bodd.). Cozvbird. A specimen is 
in the collection of Geo. L. Toppan, of Chicago, 111. 

57. Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (Bonap.). Yel- 
low -headed Blackbird. A specimen is in the collection of the 
Smithsonian Institution at Washington, D. C. 

* Deane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club. Vol. V. 1SS0. pp. 25-30. 
t Deane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club. Vol. I. 1S76. pp. 20-24. 
% Deane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club. Vol. IV. 1S79. pp. 27. — 30. 
§ Journal fur Ornichologie, Cab. II. 1854. pp. 249-253. 
!l From the Note-book of R. Deane. 
**Allen,J. A. Auk. Vol. IV. 1SS7. p. 21. 


88. Agelaius phceniceus (Linn.). Red-xuinged Black 
bird. Several specimens are in the collection of the Smithsonian 
Institution at Washington, D. C. One of these is a beautifully 
marked specimen. It is a full plumaged male, in normal dress 
with the exception of a good sized, rather shield-shaped spot on the 
throat and breast; this is of a light salmon-color. 

89. Sturnell a magna (Linn.). Meadow Lark. A spec- 
men is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution at Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

90. Sturnella magna neglecta (Aud.). Western Mead- 
ow lark. A specimen is in the collection of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution at Washington, D. C. 

91. Scolecophagus carolinus (Miill.). Rusty Blackbird. 
Specimens are in the collection of R. Deane, of Chicago, 111. 

92. Scolecophagus cyanocephalus (Wagl.). Brewer's 
Blackbird. Specimens are in the collection of R. Deane, of Chi- 
cago, 111. 

93. Quiscalus QUISCULA (Linn.). Purple Gracklc. * 

94. Quiscalus major Vieill. Boat-tailed Grackle. A 
specimen is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution at 
Washington, D. C. 

95. Pinicola enucleator (Linn.). Pine Grosbeak. \ 

96. Carpodacus purpureus (Gmel.). Purple Finch. J 

97. Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis (Baird). Hep- 
bunt's Leucosticte. \ 

98. Acanthis hornemannii (Holb.). Greenland Red- 
poll, f 

99. Acanthis linaria (Linn.). Redpoll. A specimen is 
in the collection of R. Deane, of Chicago, 111. 

100. Spinus tristes (Linn.). American Goldfinch. J 

101. Pooc-ETES gramineus (Gmel.). Vesper Sparrow. \ 

102. Ammodramus sandwichensis savanna (Wils.). Sa- 
vanna Sparrow. J 

103. Ammodramus caudacutus (Gmel.). Sharp-tailed 
Finch. A specimen is in the collection of R. Deane, of Chicago. 

104. Chondestes grammacus (Say). Lark Sparrow. A 
specimen is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution at 
Washington, D. C. 

* Deane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club. Vol. I. 1876. pp. 27-30. 
t Deane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club. Vol. V. 1SS0. pp. 26-30. 
X Deane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club. Vol. IV. 1S79. pp. 27-30. 


105. Zonotrichia coronata (Pall.). Golden-crowned Sp ar- 
row. A specimen is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution 
at Washington, D. C. 

106. Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmel.). White-throated 
S farrow . A specimen is in the collection of the Smithsonian In- 
stitution at Washington, D. C. 

107. Spizella monticola (Gmel.). Tree Sparrow. A 
specimen is in the collection of R. Deane of Chicago, 111. 

108. Spizella socialis (Wils.). Chipping Sparrow. * 

109. Spizella pusilla (Wils.). Field Sparrow. A speci- 
men is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution at Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

no. Junco hyemalis (Linn.). Slate-colored yunco. A 
specimen is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution at 
Washington, D. C. 

in. Junco hyemalis oregonous (Towns.). Oregon Junco. 
A specimen is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution at 
Washington, D. C. 

112. Melospiza fasciata (Gmel.). Song Sparrow. A 
specimen is in the collection of R. Deane, of Chicago, 111. 

113. Melospiza fasciata fallax (Baird). Desert Song 
Sparrow. A specimen is in the collection of R. Deane, of Chi- 
cago, 111. 

114. Melospiza Georgian a (Lath.). Swamp Sparrow. \ 

115. Passerella iliaca (Merr.). Fox Sparrow* 

116. Passer montanus. European Tree Sparrow. J 

117. Passer domesticus. European House Sparrow.* 
11S. Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Linn.). Towhee. Spec- 
imens are in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution at Wash- 
mgton, D. C. 

119. Pipilo fuscus mesoleucus (Baird). Canon Towhee.\ 

120. Pipilo fuscus crissalis (Vig.). Californian Towhee. 
A specimen is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution at 
Washington, D. C. 

121. Habia ludoviciana (Linn.). Rose-breasted Grosbeak.^ 

122. Passerina cyanea (Linn.). Indigo Bunting-.^ 

123. Calamospiza melanocorys Stejn. Lark Bunting. \ 

♦Deane, Bull. Nutt/Orn. Club. Vol. I. 1S76, pp. 20-24. 
t Deane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club. Vol. IV. 1879, pp. 27-30. 
% Deane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club. Vol. V. 1SS0, pp. 26-30. 


124. Piranga erythromelas Vieill. Scarlet Tanager. 
A specimen is in the collection of R. Deane, of Chicago, 111. 

125. Progne subis (Linn.). Purple Martin* 

126. Petrochelidon lunifrons (Say). Cliff Swallow. 
A specimen is in the collection of the American Museum of Nat- 
ural History at New York. 

127. Chelidon erythrogaster (Bodd.). Barn Swallow. 
A specimen is in the collection of R. Deane, of Chicago, 111. 

128. Tachycineta bicolor (Vieill.). Tree Swallow. A 
specimen is in the collection of R. Deane, of Chicago, 111. 

129. Clivicola riparia (Linn.). Ba?tk Swallow. A spec- 
imen is in the collection of the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory at New York. 

130. Ampelis garrulus Linn. Bohemian Waxwing.\ 

131. Ampelis cedrorum (Vieill.). Cedar Waxwing* 

132. Compsothlypis Americana (Linn.). Parula Warb- 
ler. The collection of the Smithsonian Institution contains a very 
handsomely marked specimen of this species. The breast and 
under parts, excepting the yellow of the throat, reddish collar and 
side marks, is pure white. Top of head snow-white; the rest 
of the upper parts being beautifully mottled with white. 

133. Dendroica coronata (Linn.). Myrtle Warbler* 

134. Dendroica auduboni (Towns,). Audubon 's Warbler. 
A specimen is in the collection of R. Deane, of Chicago, 111. 

135. Dendroica castanea (Wils.). Bay-breasted Warbler* 

136. Dendroica striata (Forst.). Black-poll Warbler. A 
specimen is in the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
at Philadelphia, Pa. J 

137. Dendroica virens (Gmel.). Black-throated Green 
Warbler. A specimen is in the collection of G. A. Boardman, of 

Calais, Me.J 

1 38. Setophaga ruticilla (Linn.). American Redstart. 
A specimen is in the collection of R. Deane, of Chicago, 111. 

139. Motacilla alba Linn. White Wagtail.^ 

140. Budytes flavus leucostriatus (Horn.). Siberian 
Yellow Wagtail\ 

* Deane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club. Vol. I. 1S76. pp. 20 24. 

+ W. L. Walford, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club. Vol. V. iSSO. pp. 1S3 & 184. 

% From the Note-book of R. Deane. 

§Journal for Ornithologie, Cab. II. 1S54. pp. 249-253. 

I! Deane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club. Vol. V. 1S80. pp. 26-30. 


141. Anthus pratensis (Linn.). Meadow Pipit* 

142. Mimus polyglottos (Linn.). Mockingbird. \ 

143. Galeoscoptes carolinensis (Linn.). Catbird. A 
specimen is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution at 
Washington, D. C. 

144. Harporhynchus rufus (Linn.). Brown Thrasher * 9 

145. Sitta carolinensis Lath. White-breasted Nuthatch* 

146. Parus bicolor Linn. Tufted 7 itmouse* 

147. Parus atricapillus Linn. Chickadee. \ 

148. Turdus ustulatus swainsonii (Cab.). Olive-backed 

149. Turdus aonalaschk.e Gmel. Dwarf Hermit Thrush. 
A specimen is in the collection of Geo. L. Toppan, of Chicago, 111. 

150. Merula migratoria (Linn.). American Robin. 
Specimens are in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution at 
Washington, D. C. A peculiarly marked specimen is in the col- 
lection of the Boston Society of Natural History. It is pure white 
mottled on the back with the normal color. The breast, which is 
white, is beautifully mottled with black or a very dark-brown. 

151. Merula migratoria propinqua Ridgw. Western 
Robin. A specimen is in the collection of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tuion at Washington, D. C. 

152. Hesperocichla n.evia (Gmel.). Varied Thrush. A 
specimen is in the collection of W. D. Bryant, of Oakland, Cala.J 

153. Saxicola genanthe (Linn.). Wheatear. * 

154. Sialis sialis (Linn.). Bluebird. A specimen is in the 
collection of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, D. C. 

A very handsome specimen of Alcedo isftida, of Europe, is in 
the collection of the American Museum of Natural History at New 
York. It is a perfect albino, but shows faint traces of the blue of 
the rump and upper tail-coverts, which looks as though seen 
through a silvery veil. 

* Deane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club. Vol. V. 1SS0. pp. 26-30. 
tDeane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club. Vol. IV. 1S79. pp. 27-30. 
£ From the Note-book of R. Deane. 



This species, which bears a close resemblance to the Texan 
Woodpecker {Dryobates scalaris), may be easily recognized from 
the latter by the white nasal tufts and the markings of the tail 

In Dryobates scalaris the nasal feathers are of a brownish-yel- 
low; those of Diyobates nuttallii are said to be always white. The 
lateral tail feathers are also marked very sparingly with black; in 
some cases they are very nearly white. But in any case they are 
not marked so extensively as those of Dryobates scalaris. The 
white bars of the back seem to be broader, and are confined more 
to the dorsal region. There are other characters which serve to 
distinguish the species which, however, is regarded as varietal by 
some writers. 

Two specimens of this bird, a male and female, that are now 
before me, show traces of a pinkish tinge on the breast; more de- 
cided on the female than in the case of the male. Young birds are 
said to have the whole top of the head red, as in D. scalaris. 

According to our best authorities, this bird seems to be confined 
chiefly to the region west of the Coast Range, in California and 
Oregon, and found as far south as San Diego. Dr. Gambel, who 
first discovered this bird near Los Angeles, Cal., describing it in the 
Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, speaks of 
finding it in California during all seasons. 

Dr. Cooper did not observe it west of the Coast Range, except 
at Santa Barbara; nor did he observe any round gardens or or- 
chards. Mr. Ridgway seems only to have met witb the bird in the 
Sacramento Valley. Dr. Gambel describes it as having habits usual 
to woodpeckers. Dr. Cooper speaks of it as being a bird of very 
industrious habits, and not easily frightened, when hammering on 
the bark of trees, permitting a near approach; at other times when 
pursued, it become more wary and suspicious. Mr. Ridgway was 
struck by the peculiarity of its note, being a prolonged, querulous, 
rattling call, unlike that of any other bird known to him. 

From the fact that not much has been said regarding this spe- 
cies, and particularly its breeding habits, I have deemed it worthy 


of interest to give my observations as well as those of more com- 
petent observers. 

April 20th, 1S62, Dr. Cooper discovered a nest of this bird near 
San Diego. It was in a rotten stump, and was only about four feet 
from the ground. He captured the female bird on the nest, which 
contained five eggs of a pure, pearly whiteness. 

Mr. Xantus describes a nest which he found in a hole in the 
body of a giant cactus (Cereus giganteus), about fifteen feet from 
the ground. The excavation made by the bird was about a foot 
and a half deep and six inches wide. The nest contained two 
eggs. Mr. Ridgway did not make any observations on the breed- 
ing habits. 

Although I have been as far south as San Diego, Cal., and as 
far north as the Russian River, Sonoma county, stopping at inter- 
mediate points, I have observed this bird at but one locality. This 
assertion, however, may not cut any figure, for my stops were neces- 
sarily short in some places. The region I refer to lies at the upper 
end of the San Bernardino Valley, and back from the coast about 
fifty miles. It is near a ranche known as " Crafton Retreat." The 
topography consists of mountain, hill and plain. The plain is 
strewn with medium sized boulders, with here and there patches 
of greasewood thickets, and an occasional clump of junipers. Back 
of the house are higher mesa lands ascending to respectable sized 
hills; these are treeless excepting in the canons, where a few syca- 
mores, cottonwoods, and oaks are to be found. Near by the house, 
not fifteen rods away, runs a brook locally known as the Sankey, 
which is fed by the springs and snows of the San Bernardino Moun- 
tains. Mount Grayback stands in the distance, between fifteen and 
twenty miles away, though apparently but one-third that distance 
At the time I was there snow yet lingered on its summit. Ten 
miles farther away Mount San Bernardino rears his hoary head- 
The intervening space, or more properly speaking, the middle dis- 
tance, is occupied by mountains and foot-hills, while the brook wends 
its way towards us, skirted on either side by cottonwoods, sycamores 
and alders, some of which are of considerable size. The immedi- 
ate foreground, in the neighborhood of the ranche, is occupied bv 
orange, fig, lemon, peach, apricot, and other cultivated trees. I re- 
mained two weeks in this lovely spot, spending much of my time 
among the birds. 

I had been out on the boulder plain several hours, on the morn- 
ing of April 23rd, 1883, collecting birds; and spying a clump of 


elder bushes in the distance, not far from the brook, the thought 
occurred to me that I might take a rest beneath their shade, and at 
the same time be ready for any strange bird that put in an appear- 
ance. These bushes, or more properly, trees, are a great deal larger 
shrub than our Eastern plant, their trunks growing from four to 
eight inches through. And if they are not the same species, their 
umbellate blossoms are strikingly similar, if not identical, to those 
of our common Eastern shrub {Sambucus canadensis). 

I had hardly seated myself on an arm of the shrub when my 
attention was attracted to 'a hole in the main trunk directly above 
my head. At almost the same instant a bird appeared at the open- 
ing from within, and dodged back again as soon as she saw me. 
The movement was executed so quickly that I was unable to tell 
whether it was a wren or a woodpecker, but concluded that it was 
the latter. Upon examination of the aperture it seemed to have 
been lately made. Of course I thought that there would be no 
trouble in dislodging her, and commenced to rap on the trunk of 
the shrub with the butt of my gun, but this seemed to have no ef- 
fect. I then walked back about fifty feet, and taking a stand, 
waited from ten to fifteen minutes in the hope that she would come 
out, affording me an opportunity to secure her and thus solve the 
mystery; but in this maneuver I was also baffled. I then went up 
to the bush and shouted with all my might, but this did not shake 
her nervous system in the least, when I finally resorted to my jack- 
knife in order to enlarge the orifice, but from its being such a tedious 
job, gave it up in disgust. The next morning I took a hatchet 
along with me, for I desired very much to know what that hole 
contained. It did not take me very long to cut a place large enough 
for me to get my hand in, and I was thoroughly surprised to learn 
that the bird was still on her nest. I pulled her out, and she ap- 
peared to be stupefied; dead apparently, but soon revived. Upon 
further inspection I found that the nest contained eggs. The bird 
proved to be the female of Nuttall's Woodpecker, and the eggs 
were pretty well advanced in incubation, and would have hatched 
in a few days. 

The nest, which was about five and a half feet from the 
ground, was very near a foot deep, and about five inches wide. The 
hole at the enhance to the nest was but a little larger than a sil- 
ver half-dollar. The eggs were six in number, their dimensions 
being .S5X.66 inches, .87X.65 inches, .82X.64 inches, .S5X. 66 inches, 
.85X.66 inches, and .S4X.64 inches, respectively. 


By the above measurements one will readily see that the eggs 
average very even. They are of a pearly white color, and seem to 
taper off, being more pointed at the small end than is usually the 
case among the Picidce. The male of this pair, for these were the 
only ones seen in the vicinity, was shot a little while before at the 

I afterwards observed some of these birds among the oaks in 
the foot-hill canons, hearing their notes for the first time. Dr. 
Cooper mentions taking the female from the nest and perhaps this 
may be characteristic with the species; indeed it may be of frequent 
occurrence among woodpeckers, but of the many woodpeckers' 
nests that I have examined, none have been 'so persistent in holding 
the fort as Dryobates nuttallii. 



Dendroica sestiva morcomi subsp. nov. Western 

Yellow Warbler. 

Characters : Similar to Dendroica cestiva. Colors lighter. Bill 
more slender. Habitat : The Western Province of North America. 
Type: Adult $. (Coll. U.S. Nat'l. Mus. No. 10,975, Fort 
Bridger, Utah, May 30th, 1S58; C. Drexler). Breast and 
sides marked with rather narrow streaks of cinnamon-rufus — D. 
(estiva has the breast and sides boldly streaked with broad chestnut 

Adult $: Below clear pale yellow — In D. cestiva the ? is 
usually streaked faintly with chestnut on the sides of the breast. 

Toiing in the Fall : Below dusky yellow; above darker. Wing 
and tail feathers edged with very pale yellowish-white — In D. 
cestiva the fall birds of the year are pale yellow beneath, greenish- 
yellow above, and the primaries and rectrices are edged with pure 
pale yellow. 

Nestling : D. cestiva morcomi (No. 10,986 U. S. Nat'l. Mus. 
Fort Bridger, Utah, July 13th, 1858; C. Drexler). Above pale 
brownish. Below soiled white tinged with brown. 

Nestling: D. cestiva (No. 82,891 U. S. Nat'l. Mus. Halfday, 
111., July 4th, 1879; H. K. Coale). Above slaty-gray. Below lighter, 
fading into white on the belly. 

A careful comparison of twenty adult spring males and ten fe- 
males from Eastern states, and an equal number from the Western 
province proved the above characters to be constant. In fact the 
race is so different that the Western form can readily be distin- 
guished from the Eastern at sight. 

The National Museum is in possession of the nests and eggs 
of both forms, but owing to the great variation in coloration and 
markings of the eggs, it is impossible to describe any distinguish- 
ing characteristics. 

It gives me pleasure to name this bird in honor of my es- 
teemed friend, Mr. Geo. Frean Morcom, of Chicago, 111. 


DGndroica dUgesi sp. nov. Mexican Tellow Warbler. 
Type: Adult :\ (No. 105,468 U.S. Nat'l. Mus. Moro Leon, Guana- 
juato, Mexico. Prof. A. Duges). 

Description: Back, occiput, and scapulars light olive-yellow. 
Crown, rump, and entire under parts canary-yellow; Primaries, 
secondaries, and two central rectrices dull black, edged with yellow. 
The other rectrices are yellow, except a narrow brownish-black 
stripe lying on the outer edge of the shafts. Centres of upper tail- 
coverts dusky. Breast and sides faintly marked with a few light 
chestnut streaks. Bill black. Legs and feet brown. The species 
most resembles Dendroica csstiva morcomi but is much larger. 
Habitat, Mexico. 

Measurements : 

Dendroica dugesi 
D. czstiva morcomi 
D. cestiva 

I name this unique specimen in honor of Prof. A. Duges from 
whom it was received by the National Museum. 

Through the courtesy of Prof. Ridgway I have recently ex- 
amined the extensive series of Golden Warblers in the col- 
lection of the National Museum, and the two new races described 
above are the result. My acknowledgements are also due to Mr. 
H. W. Henshaw for allowing me to use his specimens for com- 

♦Length taken from a dried skin. 
*Sex not marked, but evidently a male. 





Bill (gape). 



2 45 
















G. Frean Morcom, President. 

Ruthven Deane, Vice-President. 

H. K. Coai.e, Secretary and Treasurer. 

Geo. L. Toppan, Curator and Librarian. 



G. Frean Morcom Term expires May, 1889. 

Geo. L. Toppan Term expires May, 1 888. 

Benj. T. Gault Term expires May, 1887. 


H. K. Coale Term experes May, 1859. 

J. G. Parker, Jr Term expires May, 1888. 

Jos. L. Hancock Term expires May, 1887. 

active members. 

Coale, H. K. Phillips, W. A. 

Deane, Ruthven. Reinhold, Dr. Wm. 

Fulton, H. L. Rice, Frank L. 

Gault, Benj. T. Schick, Dr. Wm. 

Hancock, Jos. L. Toppan, Geo. L. 

Kaempfer, Fred. Jr. Tyrrell, F. S. 

Morcom, G. Frean. Velie, Dr. J. W. 

Parker, J. G. Jr. White, A. J. 

Wentworth, Frank. 


Robert Ridgway Washington, D. C. 


Allen, C. A Nicasio, Cala. 

Allen,J. A New York, N. Y. 


Brewster, Wm Cambridge, Mass. 

Bannister, Dr. H. M Kankakee, 111. 

Butler, Amos W .. Brookville, Ind. 

Belding, L . ..Stockton, Cala. 

Beckham, C. W Bardstown, Ky. 

Cooke, W. W Burlington, Vt. 

Corv, C. B .... Boston, Mass. 

Chamberlain, C. W Boston, Mass. 

Chamberlain, M St. Johns, N. B. 

Coues, Dr. Elliott Washington, D. C. 

Forbes, S. A ... Normal, 111. 

Gibbs, Dr. Morris Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Henshaw, H. W Washington, D. C. 

Hoffman, Dr. W. J Washington, D. C. 

Hoy, Dr. P. L Racine, Wis. 

Hurter, Julius St. Louis, Mo. 

Holterhoff, Godfrey National City, Cala. 

Jencks, Fred. T . Providence. R. I. 

Nutting, C. C ..Carlinville, 111. 

Nelson, E. W Springerville, N. M. 

Purdie, H. A Boston, Mass. 

Sennett, Geo. B .New York, N. Y. 

Stephens, F San Bernardino, Cala. 

Willard, S. W West De Pere, Wis. 

Widmann, Otto St. Louis, Mo. 

Worthen, C. K Warsaw, 111. 

Waterman, G. C Larned, Kas. 

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